The British came from Europe and went into power and took control of Upper and Lower Canada politically and basically took over the government. After his rights were denied he led the Patriotes against the Oligarchy gov't. The rebellion however was put down by the British faily quicky, leaving the Patriotes to find new means of spreading their message of freedom. The two rebellions had similar causes . In doing so, this essay will argue the t The rebellions led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America and to Act of Union 1840 which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system and eventually led to the British North America Act, 1867 which created Canada and its government. With the British minority in Lower Canada Consequences of Rebellion in Lower Canada: Causes of the rebellion in Lower Canada. To do this, students use mock newspaper articles that are constructed to highlight the events leading up to the Rebellions, the events of the Rebellions, and their aftermath. After the War of 1812, there was growing discontent in Upper Canada with the elite clique of politicians and officials known as the Family Compact. What caused the Rebellion of 1837? In particular there are political and socio-cultural factors of these rebellions which led to the violent outbreaks and also created, in turn, nationalism in the populations. Canada - Canada - The rebellions of 1837–38: Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. There is continuing debate about who was responsible for the rebellion and the degree of popular support it enjoyed. (The Canadian Founding: John Locke and Parliament) (Book review)", "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada", "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective", Canadian state trials – Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837–1839, Chart of British Regiments serving in the Canadian Rebellions of 1837–1838, The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A Collection of Documents, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rebellions_of_1837–1838&oldid=1000278017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Unification of Upper and Lower Canada into the, Buckner, Phillip. The Foreman of Public Works, Joseph Sheard, was expected to share in the work of building the scaffold for Lount's and Matthews' execution. A new book puts the country's bedrock beliefs under a microscope. Both nations were dedicated to a peace policy due to a budding financial crisis and to a sense of perceived disadvantage which both felt equally. More controversially, he recommended the government-sponsored cultural assimilation of French Canadians to the English language and culture. Some historians contend that the rebellions in 1837 ought to be viewed in the wider context of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Atlantic revolutions. [5] Ducharme (2006) puts the rebellion in 1837 in the context of the Atlantic Revolutions. Rebellions of 1837, also known as Rebellions of 1837–38, rebellions mounted in 1837–38 in each colony of Upper and Lower Canada against the British Crown and the political status quo. In the midst of this crisis of legitimacy, the Atlantic economy was thrown into recession, with the greatest impact being on farmers. The collapse of the international financial system imperiled trade and local banks, leaving large numbers in abject poverty. As they evolved into the Patriot War, the Rebellions contributed to the construction of more recent Anglo-American and Canada-US relations. Peasants and Civilians were fighting for Democracy and Independence. ... Sainte-Scholastique and Sainte-Thérèse, the army burned the houses of the rebellion's leaders. There were several problems that lead to the rebellions of 1837-38. focused on Canadian rights and independence, specifically sovereignty from the British colonial government. The Rebellion helped them get the attention of the Government to negotiate their rights. The British military crushed the rebellions, ending any possibility the two Canadas would become republics. How does Jonathan Swift represent women in his 'Stella's Birthday' series of poems. This frustrated the french because they made new laws and forced… The rebellions and their consequences, 1837 to 1840 HIS304 - Chapter 4 The rebellions of 1837 and 1838 •Tensions continued to grow between British authorities and the Parti patriote •Spring of 1837, PP organized popular assemblies to denounce Russell Resolutions •Louise-Joseph Papineau called for a boycottof products imported from the UK The Rebellions of 1837 began after Papineau's rights were denied by the governor to 92 resolutions of reform. ” Finally, on November 23, 1837 armed rebellion began, when Patriot troops led by Wolfred Nelson defeated British troops in the Richelieu valley town of Saint-Denis. In Lower Canada acute conflict between the elected and appointed elements of the legislature brought all legislation to a halt, leaving the Tories to impose Lord John Russell's Ten Resolutions, allowing them to rule without elected accountability. Introduction Long-Term Causes of the Rebellions The Legislative Assembly The Long and Short-Term Causes of the Rebellions of 1837-1838 The Government Elites Additional Issues in Lower Canada Additional Issues in Upper Canada The Economic Decline Connections between Upper and As the situation in Lower Canada approached crisis the British concentrated their troops there, making it apparent that they planned on using armed force against the Patriots. The Rebellion of 1837 was about many revolts and attacks against the rule of Great Britain. These policies favoured r… Many of the rebels (including Mackenzie) fled to the United States. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. Consequences of Rebellion in Upper Canada: The Durham Report suggested that Upper Canada and Lower Canada be united into one colony. He argues that Canadian reformers took their inspiration from the republicanism of the American Revolution. In 1837 and 1838, insurrections against the British colonial government arose in Lower and Upper. There was so much wrong with Canada at the time socially, politically, and economically. Causes of the Peasants and Civilians were fighting for Democracy and Independence. The Orange militia stood guard during the execution to deter a rescue. These drew harsh punitive reprisals such as the burning of entire villages, rapes and other forms of psychological humiliation[15] by government troops and militias, which had been concentrated in Lower Canada to deal with the crisis. The economic crisis that dominated upper and Lower Canada also played a large part so … Far from the Rebellions being entirely domestic events, the administration of American president Martin Van Buren had little choice but to implement mitigating measures on US soil to prevent escalation. "The Canadian Civil Wars of 1837–1838. One argument is that the rebellions were the inevitable result of undemocratic, unworkable colonial systems, and that the imperial government in London was out of touch and unsympathetic to reform. Canada - Canada - The rebellions of 1837–38: Political unrest developed in both Upper and Lower Canada soon after the War of 1812. Papineau had thought it was important that the people of Lower Canada should have a more suitable government, rather than the small oligarchy. William Lyon Mackenzie helped organize the Toronto Political Union in July 1837. Both organizations became the vehicles for politically organizing protests, and eventually rebellion. An unprecedented level of cooperation occurred in diplomatic and military circles. It also made them look stronger and more noticeable. There were long-term and short-term problems between the French and British in lower and upper Canada at the time. Rebellions of 1837 - Exploring Cause and Consequence. I can think of the Durham report and the Act of Union. Swanton is a. An outbreak of cholera, brought by immigrants. PART 5 The rebellions and their consequences, 1837 to 1840 Textbook, pp. Who were the members of the Doric Club? Suspicion from both parties could have severe consequences, as what happened only months later. "[14] Despite being true, this interpretation underestimates the republicanism of the Patriots. Cause and Effect: The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838. The Political Union movement in Britain was largely credited with the passing of the Great Reform Bill of 1832. Great Britain's Chartists sought the same democratic goals. The British believed the lesson of the American Revolution was to restrain the power of the people. Crop failures in parts of Lower Canada in 1837, which left many farmers near starvation. An outbreak of cholera, brought by immigrants. There are remarkable parallels between the Rebellion of 1798 in Ireland and the Rebellion of 1837-38 in Lower Canada. The rebellion of 1837 is the event that i chose to talk about, because it was important in Canadian history. ", Greenwood, F. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002), This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 13:06. The public hangings of the rebels took place in Court House Square, in between Toronto's new jail and courthouse. Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. The American Revolutionary War of 1775–83, the French Revolution of 1789–99, the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804, the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and the rebellions in Spanish America (1810–25) were inspired by republican ideals, but whether the rebels would have gone so far as to usurp the Crown remains a subject for historical debate. An increase in immigration from the British Isles. Relevance. Since the time of Lord Durham's Report on the Rebellions, the Lower Canada Rebellion has been attributed to tensions between the English and the French, that the conflict was "'racial' and, as a consequence, it was sharper than–indeed fundamentally different from—the milder strife that disturbed 'English' Upper Canada. With no troops left in Upper Canada, an opportunity for a sympathetic revolt was opened.[13]. In this lesson, students work in small groups to explore the causes and consequences of the Rebellions of 1837. Both were legitimately concerned about the disruption in relations which radical ideas might foment through further rebellion and raids. Consequences of the Rebellion of 1837? There were two types of rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. [9] The raids did not end until the rebels and Hunters were defeated at the decisive Battle of Windsor, nearly a year after the first defeat near Montgomery's Tavern. Answer Save. The Compact dominated the running of the government. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. [16], The root cause of resentment in Upper Canada was not so much against distant rulers in Britain, but rather against the corruption and injustice by local politicians—the so-called "Family Compact". Militant nationalism was largely eliminated in Lower Canada. "[citation needed], Canadian reformers' rebellion against the British Canadian government, Report on the Affairs of British North America, "The Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada", "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,", "The Patriot War of 1837–1838: Locofocoism with a gun? The Rebellion Losses Bill of 1849. The threat of armed conflict and political uncertainty heightened the underlying social, class and ethno-cultural tensions that existed in Upper Canadian society. Anything else? In Lower Canada the Patriots organized the Société des Fils de la Liberté ("Sons of Liberty"). The Rebellions of 1837 and subsequent border raids by American sympathizers prompted colonial officials to call out local militia units for extended duty. In response, Reformers in each province organized radical democratic "political unions." Consequences for the Metis: The Red River Rebellion showed that the Metis were unhappy with the lack of communication when the ownership of Rupert's Land was transferred over. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. Great Britain's Chartistssought the … Durham also recommended the merging of Upper and Lower Canada into a single political unit, the Province of Canada (established through the Act of Union 1840), which became the nucleus for modern-day Canada. The Rebellion helped them get the attention of the Government to negotiate their rights. [citation needed], Those rebels who were arrested in Upper Canada following the 1837 uprisings were put on trial, and most were found guilty of insurrection against the Crown. [11], The governments in both provinces were viewed by the Reformers as illegitimate. The Tories passed a bill allowing them to continue to sit in disregard of the established practice of dissolving the House on the death of a monarch (William IV died in June 1837).[12]. Rather, as revealed in the ruling of Chief Justice Sir John Robinson, a Lockean justification was given for the prisoners' condemnation, and not a Burkean one: the Crown, as protector of the lives, liberty and prosperity of its subjects, could "legitimately demand allegiance to its authority." [8] This organization launched the "Patriot War", which was suppressed only with the help of the American government. Favorite Answer. These farmers barely survived widespread crop failures in 1836–37, and now faced lawsuits from merchants trying to collect old debts. The invention of the Eli Whitney Cotton Gin had made slave labor vastly more profitable as cotton became a highly profitable cash crop that used the slave plantation system of farming. The Rebellions of 1837 began after Papineau's rights were denied by the governor to 92 resolutions of reform.Papineau had thought it was important that the people of Lower Canada should have a more suitable government, rather than the small oligarchy.After his rights were denied he led the Patriotes against the Oligarchy gov't. In this lesson, students work in small groups to explore the causes and consequences of the Rebellions of 1837. Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head. In Upper Canada the 1836 elections had been marred by political violence and fraud organized by the new Lt. A key shared goal was responsible government, which was eventually achieved in the incidents' aftermath. Consequences for the Metis: The Red River Rebellion showed that the Metis were unhappy with the lack of communication when the ownership of Rupert's Land was transferred over. One of the most severe punishments was the sentencing of 100 Canadian rebels and American sympathizers to life in Britain's Australian prison colonies. What were the consequences of the Rebellions of 1837? The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the uprising earlier that year in Lower Canada. In examining the past, we are usually interested in the questions of how and why. William Lyon Mackenzie and Samuel Lount lost their seats in the result. The Hunters' Lodges drew on the American members of the radical Equal Rights Party (or "Locofocos"). The Upper Canada Rebellion was, along with the Patriotes Rebellion in Lower Canada, a rebellion against the colonial government in 1837 and 1838.Collectively they are also known as the Rebellion of 1837, while the Patriotes Rebellion is also called the Lower Canada Rebellion.. These questions start the search for causes: what were the actions, beliefs, and circumstances that led to these consequences? Though the number killed on each side was equal, the strength and tenacity of the Patriot forces shook the … Crop failures in parts of Lower Canada in 1837, which left many farmers near starvation. Both office-holding oligarchies were affiliated with more broadly based "Tory parties" and opposed by a Reform opposition that demanded a radically more democratic government than existed in each colony. However, the rebels were not really convicted because their views aligned with the liberalism of the US, and thus caused some kind of offence to the Tory values of the Canadian colonies. By the time the crisis ended in 1838, hundreds had been killed, thousands were refugees, and … [20], In 1937, exactly one century after the Rebellion, the names of William Mackenzie and Louis-Joseph Papineau were applied to the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion or the Mac-Paps, a battalion of officially unrecognised Canadian volunteers who fought on the Republican side in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. Historians have tended to view the two Canadian rebellions and the subsequent US Patriot War in isolation, without reference to each other, and without reference to the republican impetus they shared. The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. At the end of the rebellion, in search for the causes the British parliament send Lord Durham who plays a significant role in shaping Canada's political culture (Read, 67). In 1837 and 1838, insurrections against the British colonial government arose in Lower and Upper Canada. Volume 101, Number 2, Fall 2009 Consequences of Rebellious Acts: The 1837 & 1838 Rebellions Guest-edited by John C. Carter Table of contents (17 articles) PDF; Consequences of Rebellious Acts: Stories of the 1837 & 1838 Rebellions It seemed then that the reformers' struggles could only be settled outside the framework of existing colonial institutions. Rebellion in Upper Canada (and Lower Canada also) broke out after the 1836 Legislative Assembly elections were corrupted. Ontario History Volume 101, numéro 2, fall 2009 Consequences of Rebellious Acts: The 1837 & 1838 Rebellions Sous la direction de John C. Carter Sommaire (17 articles) PDF; Consequences of Rebellious Acts: Stories of the 1837 & 1838 Rebellions There are often many causes that themselves have many layers. To do this, students use mock newspaper articles that are constructed to highlight the events leading up to the Rebellions, the events of the Rebellions, and their aftermath. Moderates hoped to reform the political system, while radicals yearned for a restructuring of both administration and society (Read , 19-21). However, he claimed the men had done nothing that he wouldn't have and refused to assist. ", "Canada: more liberal than Tory? Sarrafzedehkhoee. The Causes for the Rebellion of 1837-1838 The rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada were in the interests of self-government but were doomed to failure from their beginning. Many were publicly hanged, most notably Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews. In Lower Canada they were known as the Château Clique; in Upper Canada they were known as the Family Compact. [4] Recent reconsiderations have emphasized that this was a purposeful forgetfulness by the Reformers after the Rebellions, as they attempted to repudiate the bald republicanism of William Lyon Mackenzie, yet steer an acceptable course to national independence under the guise of responsible government. Mackenzie established a short-lived "Republic of Canada" on Navy Island in the Niagara River, but withdrew from armed conflict soon thereafter. The rebels believed that the right of citizens to participate in the political process through the election of representatives was the most important right, and they sought to make the legislative council elective rather than appointed. In this lecture, historian Pascal Chevrier discusses the failure of Canada’s first and only rebellion against the British Empire as part of the Rising Tide Foundation series “Towards a Harmony of Interests: Inquiries into the True Nature of the American System” . Charles Duncombe and Robert Nelson, in contrast, helped foment a largely American militia, the Hunters' Lodge/Frères chasseurs, which organized a convention in Cleveland in September 1838 to declare another Republic of Lower Canada. Some historians contend that the rebellions in 1837 ought to be viewed in the wider context of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Atlantic revolutions. Originating in modern-day Quebec, (then called Lower Canada) this independence movement was sparked by a rebellion against the Crown by the “Parti patriote”, or Patriote Party and their followers from 1837 to 1838. This frustrated the french because they made new laws and forced… They proved to be influential when the British government sent Lord Durham, a prominent reformer, to investigate the cause of the troubles. Originating in modern-day Quebec, (then called Lower Canada) this independence movement was sparked by a rebellion against the Crown by the “Parti patriote”, or Patriote Party and their followers from 1837 to 1838. 2 Answers. On December 14 1837, General John Colborne led an expedition to the village of Saint-Eustache. Rebellion of 1837-1838 Causes and consequences There were many causes and consequences of the rebellions of 1837. Robinson went on to say that those who preferred republicanism over monarchism were free to emigrate, and thus the participants in the uprisings were guilty of treason. In Lower Canada there was the agricultural crisis that caused a large number of starvations, to the French and English political and social problems within the colony. What non-violent pressure tactic did Louis-Joseph Papineau call on the population to use? In this lecture, historian Pascal Chevrier discusses the failure of Canada’s first and only rebellion against the British Empire as part of the Rising Tide Foundation series “Towards a Harmony of Interests: Inquiries into the True Nature of the American System” . The research in this proposal primarily focuses on the rebellions that took place in both upper and Lower Canada during 1838. For this reason some sources will be scholars from political science discipline. One fact is clear: the rebellions prompte… This essay will explore the causes, actions and consequences of the rebellions by examining the tensions between settlers and the British crown. Among the recommendations in his report was the establishment of responsible government for the colonies, one of the rebels' original demands (although it was not achieved until 1849). The Lower Canada rebellion was widely supported by the populace, due to economic and political subordination of the French Canadians, resulting in mass actions over an extended period of time, such as boycotts, strikes and sabotage. [10] The colonies, however, lacked the aristocratic element, and found their non-elective Legislative Councils dominated by local oligarchies that controlled local trade and the institutions of state and religion. Nat Turner's Rebellion for kids: Background History, the Cotton Cash Crop and the growth of Slavery Nat Turner's Rebellion was a direct result of the growth of slavery in the South. The rebellions of 1837-1838 that took place in Lower and Upper Canada were enacted over lack of political reforms. The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (French: Les rébellions de 1837), were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. The revolt in Lower Canada was the more serious and violent of the two. The government of Upper Canada was run by wealthy landowners known as the Family Compact. An increase in immigration from the British Isles. "My Son's Story" By Nadine Gordimer: Themes and issues in the novel (when private "affairs" become public), Newell Corporation - A SWOT analysis and the Newell Rubbermaid Corporation. Some of the causes were similar, rooted in the governing structure imposed by the 1791 constitution, while other causes developed from each colony’s particular character. Causes and Consequences. The British came from Europe and went into power and took control of Upper and Lower Canada politically and basically took over the government. The rebellion however was put down by the British faily quicky, leaving the Patriotes to find new means of spreading their message of freedom. By the time the crisis ended in 1838, hundreds had been killed, thousands were refugees, and … The American Revolutionary War of 1775–83, the French Revolution of 1789–99, the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804, the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and the rebellions in Spanish America (1810–25) were inspired by republican ideals,[1][2][3] but whether the rebels would have gone so far as to usurp the Crown remains a subject for historical debate. 2020. They controlled the system of patronagethroughout the colony and used political office and influence to further their own business interests. Essays On The Lower Canada Rebellion. [17], After the rebellions died down more moderate reformers, such as the political partners Robert Baldwin and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, gained credibility as an alternative voice to the radicals. [6] Some historians see ties to the Chartist Newport Uprising of 1839 in Wales, suppressed by Sir Francis Bond Head's cousin, Sir Edmund Walker Head.[7]. It also made them look stronger and more noticeable. The time line of this proposal will include events prior to the actual rebellions as they are significant to the understanding of the causes of these uprisings. Militant nationalism was largely eliminated in Lower Canada. The constitutions of Upper and Lower Canada differed greatly, but shared a basis on the principle of "mixed monarchy"—a balance of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Well, it stopped the Rebellion … The Rebellion of 1837 was about many revolts and attacks against the rule of Great Britain. [19], In geopolitical terms the Rebellions and the subsequent Patriot War altered the landscape of relations between Britain and British colonial authorities on one hand, and the American government on the other. Another view is that the insurgencies amounted to pointless bloodletting, which may have even slowed the pace of reform. One of the outcomes from these rebellions was the restructuring of the Canadian Parliament. Lv 7. [18] In fact, the merging of the Upper and Lower Canada was intended to take any form of self-government away from the French Canadians, forcing them into becoming a smaller part of the new, larger, political unit. 230–239 Using pages 230 to 232 in your textbook, construct a timeline that presents at least four events in 1837 before armed conflict broke out. 1 decade ago. There was also popular opposition to land-granting practices. Louis-Joseph Papineau: Louis-Joseph Papineau was born on October 7, 1786 in Montreal, Canada, and began his political career in … Historians have disagreed about how much popular support each rebellion received, and to what degree the uprisings were necessary. By contrast, the Upper Canada Rebellion was not as broadly supported by local populations, was quickly quelled by relatively small numbers of pro-government militias and volunteers and was consequently less widespread and brutal by comparison.  The rebellion of 1837 were armed uprisings that took place in Upper and Lower Canada, which is now Ontario and Quebec, in 1837 to 1838. In memory of their heritage, the group fought to the rallying cry "The Spirit of 1837 Lives on! The rebellion of 1837 is the event that i chose to talk about, because it was important in Canadian history. Can think of the international financial system imperiled trade and local banks, leaving large numbers in poverty. 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