South Africa's interior consists of a hodgepodge of British colonies and protectorates, Boer republics, and tribal nations until the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold the following decade. What if the British never kept South Africa and it remained Dutch? When the latter started to invade the southern parts of Africa (which they called the Cape), the Khoi-Khoi settlements were already ... parts of South Africa and by 1500 they expanded more southwards and eastwards in the country (Giliomee & Mbenga 2007:30). But humanitarian pressure and changing views on slavery led to legislation establishing legal rights and equality before the law for the Khoikhoi in the Cape colony in 1828, with all slaves to be fully freed by 1838. WeisSaul. Because an insufficient labour force still existed, Anglo-Boer armies (supported by Khoe, Tembu, Gcaleka, and Mpondo auxiliaries) acquired their own workers by attacking the Ngwane east of the Great Kei at Mbolompo in August 1828. Second, knowing this history helps make sense of the continued inequalities and under-development that haunt sub-Saharan Africa. This is not to say that the trekkers lived luxuriously, in the style of 19th-century plantation owners in the American South—indeed, they were almost all simply eking out a subsistence existence. Anglo-Boer commandos provided another source of African labour by illegally capturing San women and children (many of the men were killed) as well as Africans from across the eastern frontier. Such as Mining industry and the gold industry. British colonial rule was often just as brutal towards native Africans as the Dutch had been, especially in military conflicts. Holland's Dirk Kuyt, seen against Uruguay in the semifinal. It was initially meant to be a small port town for ships traveling to India, but eventually became a full settlement. However, in 1795, Britain gained control of the country, and many British government officials and citizens settled there. 1795 - The British occupy the Cape Colony after the Battle of Muizenberg. The history of almost all powerful nations contain major crimes and injustices (including of course the United States). South Africa - South Africa - Resources and power: South Africa is rich in a variety of minerals. Between 1835 and 1845, about 15,000 Voortrekkers (people of Dutch extract) moved out of the (British) Cape Colony across the Gariep (Orange) River into the interior of South Africa. If the earth lasts long enough, I'm sure we will see that those of African decent (in fact, those of every decent) are statistically equal to those of European decent in all aspects. It was common practice among the trekkers to kill all adults in conflicts with hunter-gatherers and other natives, while keeping the children to use as laborers. It included Transvaal, the Orange Free State, the Cape of Good Hope, and Natal as provinces. The Great Trek . The first step in this process included attacks in 1811–12 by the British army on the Xhosa groups, the Gqunukhwebe and Ndlambe. About 200 AD people mixed farming (growing crops as well as raising livestock) and iron tools were introduced into the east of South Africa. The Khoi traded with the Dutch, providing cattle for fresh meat. However, a republican movement led by J. In addition to diamonds and gold, the country also contains reserves of iron ore, platinum, manganese, chromium, copper, uranium, silver, beryllium, and titanium. I learned of the Dutch involvement in South Africa through Mandela's book. B. M Hertzog was gathering support in South Africa. 19th Century British Library Newspapers Contains full runs of 48 newspapers specially selected by the British Library. Third, placing this history front and center reminds those of us in the developed world, especially those of us of European descent, of both our historic linkages to colonial oppression and our ongoing collective responsibility—here and now— to address the devastating legacies of that oppression. European farmers also raided for labour north of the Orange River. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The British wanted to control South Africa because it was one of the trade routes to India. The formal abolition of slavery took place in 1834–38, and control of African labourers became stricter through the Masters and Servants Ordinance (1841), which imposed criminal penalties for breach of contract and desertion of the workplace and increased the legal powers of settler employers. ... Resources. Indeed, it is estimated that by 1793, the colony as a whole (including trekkers) totaled just 15,000 whites. Today, when most people are asked to list the most powerful European empires, they're likely to respond first with Britain, France, or Spain. They stayed for nearly one year at the Cape. To protect the developing economy there, Cape wines were given preferential access to the British market until the mid-1820s. Indeed, though Britain abolished its slave trade in 1807 and pressured other countries to do the same, the British in Southern Africa continued to import some slaves into the Cape after that date, but in numbers insufficient to alleviate the labour problem. The British attempted to force the Boers to change their way of life. David H. Gough *This article appears as the Introduction to the Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles. They brought a lot of order through their administration. South African Language: ENGLISH. Rand Daily Mail (1902-1985) A daily newspaper which covered important happenings in South Africa. They counterattacked in December 1834, and Governor Benjamin D’Urban ordered a major invasion the following year, during which thousands of Rharhabe-Xhosa died. These events were probably almost entirely unknown to leaders in Holland in the late 18th century, let alone the average Dutch person—although they were in many ways a predictable consequence of both the colonial impulse and the European ideologies of racism then prevailing. Brand South Africa, n.d. South Africa - South Africa - Diamonds, gold, and imperialist intervention (1870–1902): South Africa experienced a transformation between 1870, when the diamond rush to Kimberley began, and 1902, when the South African War ended. Until the 1840s the British vision of the colony did not include African citizens (referred to pejoratively by the British as “Kaffirs”), so, as Africans lost their land, they were expelled across the Great Fish River, the unilaterally proclaimed eastern border of the colony. English settlers in substantial numbers first entered South African in 1820s as part of a government program to relieve poverty at home. 1910: 'Union' of South Africa Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Afrikaans (UK: / ˌ æ f r ɪ ˈ k ɑː n s /, US: / ˌ ɑː f-/) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe.It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of Holland (Hollandic dialect) spoken by the Dutch settlers in South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Suffice it to say that while the British succeeded in their aims of establishing unitary rule through southern Africa, they did not come close to succeeding in the stated goal of destroying Afrkaner nationalism—indeed, the war strengthened Afrikaner ethnic identity. You've helped me understand a bit more. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named “Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope”. The Suez Canal did not exist at that time so the only way to India by ship was around the Cape. Second, the point is not to condemn the present Dutch nation for the sins of the past, as if these were unique world historical events. 1850-1890 Passengers arriving in South African Ports- by the The Genealogical Society of South Africa The Dutch in South Africa, to 1774. In 1867, diamonds were found in the town of Kimberley. For 150 years, the Dutch were the predominant foreign influence in South Africa. This trend continued with the return of the Dutch who continued to buy slaves from slave traders operating in … In 1652 the Dutch began anchoring their ships in a bay near the southern tip of Africa, halfway on their voyages to India, to replenish their supply of drinking water and meat. 1652 - The Dutch East India Company establishes the Dutch Cape Colony. However, it was not until 1652 that the Europeans founded a colon… Between 1899 and 1902, Britain and the Dutch … Thanks so much for the enlightening me. Afrikaans language, West Germanic language of South Africa, developed from 17th-century Dutch, sometimes called Netherlandic, by the descendants of European (Dutch, German, and French) colonists, indigenous Khoisan peoples, and African and Asian slaves in the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope. The British took over the island in 1664. more than 1 year ago, © 2020 Indy Week • 320 E. Chapel Hill St., Suite 200, Durham, NC 27701 • phone 919-286-1972 • fax 919-286-4274, A short history of the Dutch in South Africa, 1652-2010. Empires in Africa Britain's South Africa The British and Dutch in South Africa Sami, Katie, and Courtney The Industrial Revolution South Africa was an agricultural society prior to the British colonization. This was the beginning of the pass laws that would become so notorious in the 20th century. Territory is returned to the Dutch in 1803; ceded to the British in 1806. The constitution sent to Parliament (and there approved) establishing modern South Africa in 1910 enshrined racial distinctions, and paved the way for white rule in governments predominated by Afrikaner leaders. In 1886, gold was Apartheid South Africa 1948-198 0 Edited primary resources on the Apartheid Era- Includes some report literature. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Diamonds, gold, and imperialist intervention (1870–1902), Afrikaner and African politics in the Cape, Reconstruction, union, and segregation (1902–29), Black, Coloured, and Indian political responses, The intensification of apartheid in the 1930s, Corruption charges against deputy president Zuma, Economic problems, social discontent, Nkandla scandal, and the death of Mandela, Controversy: the Gupta family, Nkandla, and corruption charges revisited. After Britain began appointing colonial governors, an advisory council for the governor was established in 1825, which was upgraded to a legislative council in 1834 with a few “unofficial” settler representatives. Nor could the VOC use the Khoi people as slaves. The island was named after the Dutch island of Goeree. These colonialists of Dutch descent had an increasingly marginal relationship with Cape Town, much less Holland itself and the intellectual and political developments of 18th-century Europe. These changes were not well-received by the Dutch-speaking colonists, who were also disappointed at Britain's refusal to annex more land and what they felt was a low rate of compensation paid to former slave owners. As Thompson puts it, the aim was to "recreate the social and economic structure of the Cape colony," one based on the subordination of nonwhites as laborers for whites. false mineral. Central among those exploits were brutal battles with the Zulus and other groups, such as an 1838 battle that killed 3,000 Zulus in a single day. In 1795, England took control of the colony for the first time, a move made permanent in 1806. Slavery (of Africans, but also of some Asians) was a feature of the new colony almost from day one, as was the process of subjugating the local indigenous population. A devastating small pox outbreak in the late 17th century further decimated the Khoikhoi ("Hottentot") native population. The Dutch settlement history in South Africa began in March 1647 with the shipwreck of the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem. Ongoing conflict between the English and the Afrikaners in the region led to the South African War (Boer War) at the end of the turn of the 20th century, which I will not detail here. 3.When South Africa was imperialized by Great Britian most of South Africa' s resources, land, and industries were controlled by Great Britian. 136,000 South African troops fought in the Middle East and on the Western Front. Other people, such as those known as the Mantatees, were forced to become farmworkers, mainly in the eastern Cape. Cape authorities overhauled their policy in 1828 in order to facilitate labour distribution and to align the region with the growing imperial antislavery ethos. Susan Enneking Midway between these dates, in 1886, the world’s largest goldfields were discovered on the Witwatersrand. So sad that anyone in the world now or 300 years ago placed value on the color of a person's skin. A history of oppression may help to quell this attitude, but it may be the base of the problem. Although the British relinquished the colony to the Dutch in the Treaty of Amiens (1802), they reannexed it in 1806 after the start of the Napoleonic Wars. Support fearless independent local journalism. The key point is there is direct historic continuity between the original Dutch settlements and the emergence of an Afrikaner national identity predicated on racial domination, and the subsequent adoption of the policies and ideologies of Apartheid. The Dutch colonised the Cape to establish a way-station on their route to the lucrative trade in India. D’Urban’s initial attempt to rule conquered Africans with European magistrates and soldiers was overturned by Glenelg; instead, for a time, Africans east of the Keiskamma retained their autonomy and dealt with the colony through diplomatic agents. Early Dutch trading posts were attacked and destroyed by the Portuguese and so these were upgraded to full blown forts. 19th Century British Library Newspapers Contains full runs of 48 newspapers specially selected by the British Library. Ad Honorem. Almost all the resources were controlled by Britian and this helped them to build a stronger economy since they are controlling many industries. The economy of the country grew even more. After Britain began appointing colonial governors, an advisory council for the governor was established in 1825, which was upgraded to a legislative council in 1834 with a few … Then about 2,000 years ago people in the west learned to herd sheep and cattle. South African Settlers British who emigrated to South Africa. First, this history matters for its own sake—forgetting history is rarely a good idea. They used stone tools. Menu What if the Dutch Kept South Africa? Originally, South Africa was discovered by the Portuguese in 1488. Over a hundred thousand years ago people in what is now South Africa lived by hunting animals and gathering plants. Instead, I want to suggest three things. This was the strata from which the first “trekkers” emerged—those white colonialists who over the course of the 18th century branched out from the Cape Town base and began expanding white presence in southern Africa, to the north and the east. In 1895, the British South Africa Company hired the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham to look for minerals and ways to improve river navigation in the central and southern Africa region. Forums Login. Dutch Exploration and ColonizationOverviewIn the sixteenth century the United Provinces of the Netherlands rose from the status of a Spanish possession to a great European power. The Boer government was eventually forced into a … Almost all the resources were controlled by Britian and this helped them to build a stronger economy since they are controlling many industries. Apartheid South Africa 1948-198 0 Edited primary resources on the Apartheid Era- Includes some report literature. The Afrikaners succeeded in this aim. First, I don't think history should make anyone root against Holland on Sunday. The raid’s failure saw the end of Rhodes’ political career, but Sir Alfred Milner, British high commissioner in South Africa from 1897, was determined to overthrow Kruger’s government and establish British rule throughout the subcontinent. A ban in 1809 on Africans crossing into the Cape aggravated the labour shortage, and so the British, like the Dutch before them, made the Khoe serfs through the Caledon (1809) and Cradock (1812) codes. Griqua raiding states led by Andries Waterboer, Adam Kok, and Barend Barends captured more Africans from among people such as the Hurutshe, Rolong, and Kwena. Let me specify two ways I don't think it matters. British colonial rule was often just as brutal towards native Africans as the Dutch had been, especially in military conflicts. When Great Britain went to war with France in 1793, both countries tried to capture the Cape so as to control the important sea route to the East. Finally they were rescued by a fleet of 12 ships under the command of W.G. In 1834 they abolished slavery, an act the Boers resented because they believed (as did many others of European descent) that God had established a hierarchy of being in which white Christians were superior to people of indigenous races. It took South Africa centuries to really move beyond the racial legacies of colonization, but the Dutch pride is a permanent part of their heritage. In this process, the trekkers began forging a new, distinct national and cultural identity, distinct from the Dutch and in opposition both to indigenous Africans and the English—Afrikaner nationalism. When the discovery of diamonds and gold in the southern African interior in the late 19th century began transforming the country economically, the system of racial segregation was well-entrenched, and the mines were organized on the same principle. https://study.com/academy/lesson/british-colonies-in-africa-history-map.html The infrastructure of the colony began to change: English replaced Dutch as the language of administration; the British pound sterling replaced the Dutch rix-dollar; and newspaper publishing began in Cape Town in 1824. Merino sheep were introduced, and intensive sheep farming was initiated in order to supply wool to British textile mills. false (dutch) ... the major source of wealth in africa was the continent's agricultural resources. the Dutch in the south of the continent. 3.When South Africa was imperialized by Great Britian most of South Africa' s resources, land, and industries were controlled by Great Britian. Indeed, more recently Holland was a major center of anti-apartheid activism, beginning in the mid-1950s; some of this history is detailed here. In South Africa under Dutch settlement, there was a shortage of labour, especially on the wheat and wine farms. The British crossed the Great Kei River and ravaged territory of the Gcaleka-Xhosa as well; the Gcaleka chief, Hintsa, invited to hold discussions with British military officials, was held hostage and died trying to escape. 17 Nov. 2016. belgian settlers in south africa were known as boers. ... Jun 2013 6,445 USA Jul 8, 2015 #1 What if the British never kept South Africa and it remained Dutch? Most Europeans still regarded the settlement as a pit stop. The colonial history of South Africa began with 9 employees of the VOC establishing themselves below the slopes of Table Mountain in 1657. Rand Daily Mail (1902-1985) A daily newspaper which covered important happenings in South Africa. The Dutch built the Castle of Good Hope and completed it in 1679. Register. Resentment against English rule led some colonists of Dutch descent to embark on the "Great Trek" of the 1820s and 30s—a sustained effort, much larger in scale than the 18th-century trek, to achieve both white control over African land and autonomy from the English. A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day. The conflict and rivalry between English - and Afrikaans-speakers goes to the heart of the history of white South Africa. Burnham oversaw and led the Northern Territories British South Africa Exploration Company expedition that first established that major copper deposits existed north of the Zambezi in North-Eastern Rhodesia . Government beyond the Cape Town region was extremely limited, and the trekkers in effect made their own laws, particularly in dealing with native Africans. 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