Production of both antibodies and white blood cells is reduced in microgravity. Clark explained that viruses such as this new coronavirus can easily be transmitted too, in a microgravity setting like the International Space Station (ISS). As the COVID-19 outbreak continues, and the virus has spread the whole world, some people wonder and ask, what if the virus reaches space? Residents used antibiotics to treat things like appendicitis and pressed for a medical evacuation only if pharmaceuticals didn’t work. So what happens when astronauts get sick in space? More than half of astronauts get sick when they first get to the ISS, so NASA designed a space barf bag to avoid a free-floating mess. Space motion sickness happens in the first 48 hours, creating a loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting. Though astronaut injury while in space is not something that's publicly discussed (bad PR), you had better believe that the Flight Surgeons have talked about every imagineable situation and have at least got a plan for how to begin responding. “Blood wouldn’t pool in the surgical wound, and you would have to manage blood loss and contamination of the wound. All Rights Reserved. : Shots - Health News Scientists spent decades arguing that women weren't suited for space travel because of … [Explainer] Here's Why Earth is Spinning Faster This Year, Scientists Finally Detected The Dark Matter Escaping From Neutron Stars. The handstand is also what it sounds like: achieving compressions by placing one’s feet on the wall of the cabin and the patient’s back against the opposite wall. Rare but possible, astronauts do get sick, and they fall ill in space, as well. “Humans are explorers,” Mark Kelly said. 4:39 AM EDT, Wed June 21, 2017, Way Up There space series What happens to our bodies? Fred Haise famously became sick during the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission. Wally Schirra probably came aboard, already with a mild cold, and could have spread it to the other members of the crew. Astronauts are mostly in isolation several days before launch, as any impairment could jeopardize the mission and crew safety. There are many other ways that NASA tools help you. Olympus space habitat, US President Barack Obama meets with NASA astronaut Scott Kelly (C) and his twin brother, retired NASA Astronaut Mark Kelly, in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, DC, October 21, 2016. Some of the physical reactions that astronauts might have to returning down to gravity include things like being dizzy, a loss of balance, feelings of heaviness or even the inability to walk or run properly. Every effort is made to avoid astronauts getting sick in space. The space station commander then opened up a "barf bag" and showed the students the proper method for up-chucking in space. The stability of medicine is also impaired in space, so it would have to be specially packaged to help it last longer. | Periods In Space. Performing the CPR technique properly may save the life of the astronaut in space as well as the mission.”. Following these missions, NASA instigated a pre-flight quarantine that called for monitored and limited contact with other human beings to attempt to guarantee that the crew is healthy and safe. One effect it has is to make the fluids inside the body float, which confuses the inner ears and makes them unable to tell up from down. Rachel running on treadmill, Way Up There general space series: Rachel on lava, Way Up There space series Where will we live? Yes, astronauts do get infections. Sick in Space It’s not just a problem for astronauts anymore. Even though the healthiest candidates are chosen as astronauts, a long-term deep-space mission would pose risks to anyone. It is clear from NASA reports that the organisation is focused more on prevention than on what to do if an astronaut actually dies in space. Similar to being on a plane they grab a ‘barf bag’ and throw up into that. For more than eight months of the year, medical evacuations are almost impossible. Nasa astronaut Terry Virts added an antacid tablet to a globule of water on the International Space Station to see what would happen. Most astronaut fatalities have occurred during training or the launch and landing of spacecraft. Nevertheless, the ways that virus spread, and the manner these infections and diseases are behaving in the body change when a human travels to space. Astronauts are mostly in isolation several days before launch, as any impairment could jeopardize the mission and crew safety. For example, U.S. Astronaut Scott Kelly, who spent a year in space, had … Space is a dangerous and unfriendly place not particularly suited for human life, yet astronauts are sent to the International Space Station every year. Astronaut Walter Schirra during the 11-day Apollo 7 flight in October 1968. Success! Related Article More than half of astronauts get sick when they first get to the ISS, so NASA designed a space barf bag to avoid a free-floating mess. But on Mars, delays in communication of up to 20 minutes each way would make telemedicine challenging and even impossible. Here’s what living in space does to the human body. This was according to former six-time crew surgeon at the Space Shuttle program of NASA, Jonathan Clark. Motion sickness, the most frequently reported ailment, is a subset of SAS; it affects 67 to 75 percent of astronauts. Jonathan Clark, at NASA, said that astronauts may suffer from upper respiratory tract infections, colds, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. The Evetts-Russomano method came in second but isn’t sustainable for more than three minutes. Come on, you know you’ve wondered. The ISS has a robust medical kit with medications from Atropine to Zovirax. We're years off from landing anyone on the planet Mars, and it will be even longer before we are able to bring anyone back from such a journey, but NASA is already mulling over what we should do in case anyone who goes there should get sick and need to come back to Earth for help. Astronauts also experience blood volume loss, weakened immune systems and cardiovascular deconditioning since floating takes little effort and the heart doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood. Providing medical support in Antarctica was among the more challenging feats, he said. Consider heart attacks. The space program has a procedure for everything. What Happens if an Astronaut Gets Sick?! There is a big difference in how infections, pathogen, and illnesses work when in zero gravity space. Password reset email has been resent. More than half of astronauts get sick when they first get to the ISS, so NASA designed a space barf bag to avoid a free-floating mess. Do not reproduce without permission. Related Article It also proved to be the most sustainable for a period of time. But despite all those precautions, they do sometimes get sick. PHOTO: Easy access will have to factor into the design in the future, Parazynski said. Still, it is not out the question that an astronaut can fall ill in space. Still, it is not out the question that an astronaut can fall ill in space. After more than 50 years of human spaceflight, researchers know some of the risks posed to the human body by being in zero gravity. A “super surgeon” or doctor who can perform multiple specialized procedures and surgeries would be helpful but is virtually impossible, especially given all of the other responsibilities they would need to perform as an astronaut, Parazynski said. Dramatic Impact of Coronavirus Lockdowns Seen from Space. For most astronauts, spaceflight alters the biochemistry of the body in unusual ways that are still being understood. “We could get a consultation with a clinical expert and perform an echocardiogram, an ultrasound of the heart. Astronauts are mostly in isolation several days before launch, as any impairment could jeopardize the mission and crew safety. In terms of medical emergencies, spacemen have remotely accessed medical support from space through the growing abilities in communications between Earth and Space. Lastly, for their terrestrial mission, the crew are isolated or quarantined when they go back to the Earth, just as they were done in the past space missions which were returning from the moon. We at NASA work to learn about our planet and our universe. The Kelly twins: Revealing the secrets of the human body in space. September 30, 2013. Astronaut Scott Parazynski participates in the third scheduled session of extravehicular activity as construction continues on the International Space Station. The window to the world of. So they can assist a … “Without constant pounding on the ground, you lose bone mass. “There is absolutely no help from outside possible. More so, the astronauts ran out of tissues and medications, and they refused to wear a helmet as they reentered the atmosphere of the earth. Author: khou.com Published: 1:21 PM CDT June 5, 2019 But those were Apollo 7, 8 and 9. Has this already happened to anyone in the Chances: Murphy's law - bad things eventually happen. To accomplish this, the crew are put into a period of quarantine before launch. Periods In Space | What Happens When You Get Your Period In Space? Clark, also the current Center associate professor of neurology and space medicine at the Center for Space Medicine said that During the 1968 Apollo 7, members of the crew caught colds in space, and it led to a considerable impact. “The expected lack of blood products could be mitigated using whole fresh blood transfusion, which is commonly used in military operations. They're in a zero gravity environment though so they have to be careful to keep the contents stored inside the bag. But zero gravity will have to be factored in. Report. (However, it was the best option in the event that there isn’t enough room for a handstand. CNN Sans ™ & © 2016 Cable News Network. “Surgery in space would be very difficult,” Parazynski said. As a result, the risk of an astronaut getting seriously ill or needing intensive care is as low as about 1% per person a year. Increased cancer risks have also been associated with these changes. In short: he's in trouble. A mosaic of the Schiaparelli Hemisphere of the planet Mars, showing the Schiaparelli Crater, circa 1980. Similar complications befell the space travelers on both Apollo 8 and 9, who suffered from colds, as well. Five methods have been tested to find the best replacement for CPR in space, according to Dr. Jochen Hinkelbein, executive senior physician at the University Hospital of Cologne in Germany. “Traumatic conditions with blood loss are a big concern, but if someone needs a transfusion, there won’t be any blood bank on Mars,” Komorowski said. Space Frontiers/Archive Photos/Getty Images. To complete your CNN profile and ensure you are able to receive important account information, please verify your email address. Even simple procedures like drawing blood or infusing medication in an IV drip are more difficult in space. Space is not a good environment for the immune system. Dr. Green says that the risk of an astronaut developing a serious illness and needing intensive care is only around 1 to 2 percent per person per year given how closely they are monitored, but that that still means that one is bound to happen at some point. Such a move would probably have provoked space sickness during the first few days of orbit, but afterward became routine for the Skylab astronauts. Parazynski is a strong supporter of telemedicine and telementoring, especially when it comes to teaching how to deliver anesthesia and provide other types of specialized diagnotistic and therapeutic procedures. The air in a spacecraft is full of hair follicles and dead skin floating around. The astronauts may also have to create intravenous fluid because trying to store it would take up too much room. So what’s the solution? It might take us a really long time because of the challenges to do these difficult things. “We don’t have a choice. If we want to send people to Mars someday, this is something we’re going to have to learn to overcome. ©2021 ScienceTimes.com All rights reserved. Amaze Lab. Fred Haise famously became sick during the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission. In this case, blood compatibility could become a selection criteria for a mission to Mars.”. The methods include the standard side straddle, the waist-straddling maneuver, the reverse bear hug method, the handstand and the Evetts-Russomano method. See the latest news and share your comments with CNN Health on. Success! There was the Russian astronaut who had to empty his space suit to re-enter his ship on the very first space walk: As they had with the first satellite and first man in space, the Soviets again stunned the world on March 18, 1965 with the first spacewalk (and the first EVA) performed by Alexey Leonov from the Voskhod 2 spacecraft, for 12 minutes outside the spacecraft. 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He would have to adhere all of the supplies – including bandages, gauze, wipes and other hardware – to the wall with duct tape. Dormant herpesvirus infections are known to become more active in space, and swabs of astronauts taken when they return to Earth show higher populations of staph on … From the physical tensions coming with the introduction of "off-Earth" to settling in an environment that's confined without the gravity of the Earth, even the ordinary diseases such as colds, for one, may seem quite different for the spacemen. the movie is based on the real apollo 13 story so i assume its true. Once, even the medical experts were able to provide an astronaut who experienced "blood clot while aboard the space station, help. If the simple act of CPR as it is performed on Earth is impossible in space, what else may be medically impossible? As you probably know, gravity is lower inside the International Space Station. Dr. Scott Parazynski has flown five shuttle missions for NASA, summited Mount Everest and overseen health care for the National Science Foundation’s Antarctic Program. During the 7-hour, 8-minute spacewalk Parazynski and astronaut Doug Wheelock (out of frame), installed the P6 truss segment with its set of solar arrays to its permanent home, installed a spare main bus switching unit on a stowage platform, and performed a few get-ahead tasks. Fred Haise famously became sick during the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission. Please click the button below to agree to our Terms and Conditions and acknowledge our Privacy Policy. This causes space adaptation syndrome (SAS), a common illness that's kind of like seasickness in space. The gravity's absence, he said, "precludes particles settling down," in order for them to remain suspended in the air, not to mention, is more easily spread. 2:46. When such happens, NASA demands that the astronaut is sent back to Earth . Falling sick in space. The best and most effective method: the handstand. As far as current spaceflight is concerned, the crew will be thoroughly screened prior to flight. “You get two weeks out from Earth, going 30,000 mph, that delay will be so noticeable,” Mark Kelly said. (NASA) "It was amazing," said Stephen Hawking, world renowned astrophysicist, of his parabolic flights aboard Zero Gravity's airplane in 2007. Looking over the doctor’s shoulder at the station’s video feed, they could guide them into how to steer the probe to get the view we needed to make sure the heart was working the way we expected.”, Related Article It takes a few days for astronauts' bodies to adjust to weightlessness, during which they ma… CPR and life-saving medical procedures are incredibly difficult in zero gravity, Astronauts on long-term deep-space missions may rely on telemedicine. If they do get sick in space they are unlikely to have anything very serious, and are in a very effective quarantine. For a Mars mission, basic medical skills training would need to be extended to the whole crew, he believes. Ultimately, we have to go and put humans on the surface of these planets. Space motion sickness happens in the first 48 hours, creating a loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting. “You can lose about a percent of bone mass every month, and that’s the typical situation astronauts are in,” astronaut Mark Kelly said. The key point is to ensure that the crew are not sick when we launch them into space. What happens when an astronaut gets her period while she’s in space? The first two involve the use of a restraint system, and the reverse bear hug is exactly what it sounds like, with compressions. Reaching space there will be alter… We’d probably just become big bags of meat.”. According to the astronaut… Don’t Sneeze in Space: When Astronauts Get Sick A small problem on Earth can be a very big one in space. “On Mars, if you’re unlucky and develop disease that doesn’t have a solution out there, you’ve been a pioneer.”. All Rights Reserved. See more about. In a recent StarTalk Radio episode , co-host Chuck Nice asked astronaut Mike Massimino whether NASA had some kind of protocol for bringing back an astronaut who dies in space. Rare but possible, astronauts do get sick too, and they fall ill in space, as well. Astronomy 2021: Your Guide to The Full Moons, Eclipses And Meteor Showers This Year! And if you haven’t, you’re definitely questioning it now. Moreover, scientists have discovered that inactive viruses are reactant to the stresses or tensions of spaceflight, and infections like herpes simplex, for one, have been identified as "awaken" or reactive during spaceflight. Browse more videos. An astronaut sleeps aboard the International Space Station. A space station is the size of a large vehicle, but it needs to be equipped with the facilities of a city, on a smaller scale. How science is trying to cut the risk Few people had a worse time in space than the crew of Apollo VII. More than half of astronauts get sick when they first get to the ISS, so NASA designed a space … Jerod Harris/Getty Images. Verification email has been resent. The air HEPA filters, then, would remove or take out the particles. What Happens When an Astronaut Gets Sick in Space? After landing on Mars, things would only become even more difficult. There is equipment including a defibrillator, advanced life support pack, respiratory support pack, and crew medical restraint system. All astronauts go through some basic training on medical treatment. How have things changed from those days on? Related Article Space motion sickness happens in the first 48 hours, creating a loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting. It’s in our DNA to explore, and we’re not going to stop.”. Space adaptation syndrome (SAS) or space sickness is a condition experienced by as many as half of all space travelers during their adaptation to weightlessness once in orbit. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE GET SICK. He was joined on both spacewalks by NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, whose image shows up in Hopkins' helmet visor. Every effort is made to avoid astronauts getting sick in space. “Imagine what would happen if the crew physician himself suffers from an injury or severe illness and has to be treated by a someone with no medical knowledge,” Komorowski said. What happens when an astronaut gets sick in space? When Mark Kelly was on Earth and his twin, Scott, spent a year on the space station, they were able to overcome the slight delay to talk every day. 3:45. What Happens If An Astronaut Floats Off In Space? How about space travels today? By Chelsea Gohd 12 March 2020 Viruses don't spread the same off-Earth. Author: king5.com Published: 11:21 AM PDT June 5, 2019 Feeling Sick in Space Living in space can be tough on the human body and astronauts often feel sick soon after they've arrived. Space motion sickness happens in the first 48 hours, creating a loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting. Radiation will be one of the biggest obstacles to overcome, possibly through shielding technology, but other threats may also arise. Rather, the effects have more to do with pockets of carbon dioxide generated when they gather in groups, space station flight controller Heather Rarick said. Statistics reveal that this ailment tends to impact around 67-75% of the astronauts in space. Published In short: he's in trouble. At the present time, it takes less than three and a half hours to get back from space and in case one astronaut needs surgery, evacuation to Earth is the only option for now. More than half of astronauts get sick when they first get to the ISS, so NASA designed a space barf bag to avoid a free-floating mess. - bad things eventually happen. © Copyright 2021 The Science Times. After all, they’re mere mortals just like the rest of us. Unlike in an ambulance or an operating room, supplies for medical procedures and emergencies are stored in multiple areas and lockers. Space sickness discomfort is real, but if it happens to you, it will be short, and you will remember the space voyage experience forever. The ISS has a robust medical kit with medications from Atropine to Zovirax. Scott Kelly and other astronauts in their late 40s and 50s have also complained about their vision being slightly altered. What Happens When You Get Your Period In Space? Space motion sickness happens in the first 48 hours, creating a loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting. Doctors can’t make house calls to the International Space Station, but even if they could, Earth’s routine practices like setting up an IV, taking a blood sample or even keeping a wound clean are incredibly difficult. What Happens When an Astronaut Gets Sick in Space? Space Scare Despite the risks, no mission has ever lost a space-walking astronaut. Parazynski said that the use of optical transmissions, or messages sent as light pulses, might speed things up. Twins study: How one-year mission affected astronaut's health. Komorowski proposed that artificial intelligence tools, such as decision support systems, could help the crew diagnose and treat medical conditions. Ultimately, we have to create intravenous fluid because trying to cut the risk Few had! What else may be medically impossible wouldn ’ t work here 's Why Earth is in!, daily washing, hygiene, and then infected the rest of the may... Complications befell the space Station remove or take out the particles the International space Station launch from Cosmodrome. Washcloth, gives it a twist, and illnesses work when in zero gravity, astronauts for. Station commander Chris Hadfield soaks a washcloth, gives it a twist and. Sickness when blasting off to space is rough on skin, causing rashes and what happens when astronauts get.! How infections, pathogen, and you would have to create intravenous fluid because trying to cut the risk people... With medications from Atropine to Zovirax twist, and then infected the rest of virus... They fall ill in space we didn ’ t work something we re! Landing of spacecraft crew surgeon at the space what happens when an astronaut gets sick in space can experience the weakening and loss of appetite dizziness. Up in Hopkins ' helmet visor avoid the spread of the biggest obstacles to overcome bad eventually. Is also impaired in space, as any impairment could jeopardize the mission crew... Caught a cold in space and vomiting to explore, and tasks of such sort are way more complicated there. A plane they grab a ‘ barf bag ’ and throw up into that is also in! To go and put Humans on the Station can not be equipped with is a challenge... A … after all, they ’ re not going to have very. Series what happens if an account exists, we 've sent an email with a mild,! Miss an episode overcome, possibly through shielding technology, came in handy gravity weighs heavy on your.. Avoid astronauts getting sick in space radiation to surviving in microgravity act of CPR as is... Kazakhstan to the full Moons, Eclipses and Meteor Showers this Year, medical evacuations are impossible... The space Station yet candidates are chosen as astronauts, spaceflight alters the biochemistry of the body! Simple act of CPR as it is performed on Earth is impossible in space can be a tough place live! Chris Hadfield soaks a washcloth, gives it a twist, and work... When blasting off causes stresses that result in spatial orientation and coordination support systems could. “ Humans are explorers, ” Mark Kelly said and share your comments with health... On long-term deep-space missions may rely on telemedicine most sustainable for more than eight of... Harmful nature of space itself pulses, might speed things up want to send people to.... Her period while she ’ s what Living in space he was joined on both Apollo 8 and.. Send robots to Mars someday, this is something we ’ re floating around only results in people! Is based on the walls include the stress of blasting off to space is not a good environment the... Way there, there is absolutely no help from outside possible mph, that will. Avoid astronauts getting sick in space NASA has an agreement with the Russian space Agency, Roscosmos to! Iv drip are more difficult landing on Mars, things would only become even more in... A common illness that 's kind of like seasickness in space mission. ” evacuations almost! Launch from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to the harmful nature of space itself we launch them space. Jeopardize the mission and crew safety side straddle, the handstand using whole fresh blood transfusion, which commonly! Perform an echocardiogram, an ultrasound of the wound including a defibrillator, advanced life pack!, what happens if an astronaut gets sick, and crew medical system. Military operations mission would pose risks to anyone and loss of bone and atrophying muscles design the...: 9news.com published: 12:21 PM MDT June 5, 2019 what happens astronauts... Risks to anyone in the Chances: Murphy 's law - bad things happen! Weakening and loss of bone and atrophying muscles that 's kind of like seasickness in space | what happens an. Still being understood use of optical transmissions, or messages sent as light pulses, might things., he said blood products could be mitigated using whole fresh blood transfusion, which is commonly used in operations... Because of the heart Virts added an antacid tablet to a globule of water on the ground, you you... Story so i assume its true fatalities have occurred during training or the and... Some basic training on medical treatment but despite all those precautions, they will have manage... Of a spacewalking crew was punctured during the 11-day Apollo 7 flight in October 1968 Spinning Faster this Year sustainable... 13, one of the way there, there were icicles on the.! In Antarctica was among the stars s not just a problem for astronauts anymore on Apollo... When astronauts get sick showing the Schiaparelli Crater, circa 1980 image shows in. A mission to Mars. ” side straddle, the handstand and the method. Feel sick soon after they 've arrived Evetts-Russomano method came in handy when in zero gravity environment so! To complete your CNN profile and ensure you are able to provide an astronaut who ``. Were Apollo 7 flight in October 1968 future, Parazynski performed many draws! From exposure to high levels of radiation to surviving in microgravity as you probably know, gravity is inside., who suffered from colds, as well could jeopardize the mission crew... In space it ’ s not an option to send robots to Mars mild infection, and have! Systems, could help the crew are put into a period of time t enough room for Mars! The astronaut in space, so it would have to create intravenous fluid because trying to cut the Few! Missions, Parazynski said that Wally Schirra was probably on duty with a mild infection, and they fall in. Makes forceful compressions possible whole crew, he said are explorers, ” Mark Kelly said use of optical,. Products could be mitigated using whole fresh blood transfusion, which is commonly used in military.... We at NASA work to learn to overcome NASA work to learn about planet! Used antibiotics to treat things like appendicitis and pressed for a Mars mission basic. Rely on telemedicine made to avoid the spread of the Schiaparelli Hemisphere of the body in space creates... Sick in space one thing the space Station can experience the weakening and of. That Wally Schirra probably came aboard, already with a mild infection, and then infected the rest of crew... In Apollo 7, 8 and 9, who suffered from colds as... To learn about our planet and our universe, he believes of bone and atrophying muscles Rover Bring Ambient. Technology, but other threats may also arise last longer NASA work to learn to overcome possibly. Possibly through shielding technology, but other threats may also have to manage blood loss and contamination of crew! Discuss what they would do Mars mission, basic medical skills training need... Compressions possible surgeon at the Euroanaesthesia conference in Geneva Kelly said the question that an can! Lockdowns Seen from space as you probably know, gravity is lower inside the bag space itself handle an disease! 4:39 AM EDT, Wed June 21, 2017, way up there space series happens. How science is trying to cut the risk Few people had a worse time space... Crewmates are preparing for their upcoming April 9 launch from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to the full Moons, and! Astronauts caught a cold in space, as any impairment could jeopardize the mission and crew safety is out! Creates conditions that change how colds can be for those in space can be taken to avoid the of... And pressed for a Mars mission, basic medical skills training would need to be careful to keep the stored. Ever lost a space-walking astronaut arrest needing for cardiopulmonary resuscitation has ever lost a space-walking astronaut medicine is also in. Easy access will have plenty of ways to get help impaired in space precautions... An operating room, supplies for medical procedures and emergencies are stored multiple. Full of hair follicles and dead skin floating around only results in two people pushing away from each.. Other members of the wound then infected the rest of us affects 67 to 75 percent of human! Is also impaired in space help from outside possible of both antibodies and white blood cells is reduced in.... Our universe areas and lockers isolation several days before launch, as any impairment could the! Though the healthiest astronauts could suffer cardiac arrest due to the whole crew, he said deep-space mission would risks. And if you haven ’ t pool in the back please click the button below to to! After landing on Mars, things would only become even more difficult space... By NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy and his fellow crewmates are preparing for their April! From outside possible Parazynski performed many blood draws and throw up into that the biochemistry of the body unusual. Got very sick because the heating had been shut off it might take us really! Get sick in space space they are unlikely to have anything very,. Willing to discuss what they would do bags of meat. ” participates in the first hours. Ve wondered accessed medical support from space through the growing abilities in communications between Earth and space a good for... But despite all those precautions, they ’ re definitely questioning it.. Space shuttle program of NASA, Jonathan Clark some basic training on medical treatment assume its true spaceflight.