The only two African countries to remain independent were Liberia and Ethiopia. 1970. 2008. We have no reason to believe that information on location names was systematically biased in German statistical reports. How could this document be used to explain a driving force behind European imperialism in Africa? 2007. In Der Maji-Maji-Krieg in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1905–1907 [The Maji-Maji War in German East-Africa, 1905-1907], edited by Felicitas Becker and Jigal Beez, 87–99. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 715, Extraction and cost considerations were most certainly important to any state-led colonial project. In recent years scholars have debated the “continuity thesis” that links German colonialist brutalities to the treatment of Jews, Poles, and Russians during World War II. Our argument, echoing Boone’s work, conceptualizes the sub-national expansion of the state as endogenous to the political context of the time and builds on bellicist explanations of state building.7, We show that in the ‘primitive accumulation of power’ phase, bellicist threats not only provide. 64 Koponen 1995; Pesek 2005. While we emphasize the dynamic and strategic character of state building, we are aware that processes of state expansion. Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of World War I when its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. This perspective returns the primary focus to the bellicist dimension of the classic predatory model of state building32 and shifts the emphasis to sub- national variation in state presence.33 Similar to Boone, our explanation explicitly understands the evolution of state building as an endogenous process that is sensitive to the political context of the time, but highlights learning processes and the dynamic nature of political bargains that underpin the expansion of colonial power.34 Thus we essentially understand (colonial) state building as a process of demarcating distinct spheres of influence and establishing a physical presence in claimed territory.35 We argue that there are three main reasons for this. Bruhn, Miriam, and Francisco A. Gallego. Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. 2001. According to historian William Roger Louis, in the years before the outbreak of the World War, British colonial officers viewed the Germans as deficient in “colonial aptitude,” but “whose colonial administration was nevertheless superior to those of the other European states.” Anglo-German colonial issues in the decade before 1914 were minor, and both the British and German empires took conciliatory attitudes. According to such a perspective, we expect state presence to be particularly strong near international borders. 28 Herbst 2000. Bismarck even tried to give German South-West Africa away to the British. These imperatives were particularly dominant during the late nineteenth century, when European powers were in heightened competition with each other, trying to satiate their hunger for the expansion of their empires. 2010. Prominent studies by Weber on eighteenth and nineteenth century France14 and Scott on Southeast Asia15, highlight that the abilities and costs of state penetration are related to the distance and accessibility of the targeted regions. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. Hafeneder, Rudolf. establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them’ (General Act of the Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, Article 35). Jackson, Robert. Finally, since our goal is to understand the motives behind state expansion from the colonial government’s perspective, it is to some extent an advantage to rely on source material that reflects the information that was available at the time. Berlin: Buchhandlung der Berliner Evangelischen Missionsgesellschaften. ‘Bloody proofs’ of superiority are even more essential for deterring opposition where the state has to control vast areas with very limited resources in terms of personnel and infrastructure. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. In July 2015, the German government and the speaker of the Bundestag officially called the events a “genocide” and “part of a race war.” However it has refused to consider reparations. American Economic Review 95 (4):1190–213. By pooling our observations across time periods, we might bias our findings due to the, influence of unobserved confounders. Public opinion eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a world-class navy. Violent resistance against the colonial state, measured via the Battle Index, is estimated to, have a positive association with station presence in Models 1–6, reaching statistical significance at the 0.1–5.0 per cent level. Banerjee, Abhijit, and Lakshmi Iyer. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. The Herero and Nama genocide was a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) against the Herero and Nama people, considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century. Political bargains struck between local leaders and colonial administrators that shaped the expansion of the colonial state were subject to continuous updating by both sides. 6 E.g. 49, 711–737 Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2017, The Territorial Expansion of the Colonial State: Evidence from German East Africa 1890–1909, JAN PIERSKALLA, ALEXANDER DE JUAN AND MAX MONTGOMERY*. Munich: Weltforum Verlag. Fukuyama, Francis. In contrast with private colonial actors (for example, traders or missionaries), state agents prioritized territorial control and order over extraction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Taken together, these data provide a unique insight into the spatial features of the German colonial state and allow for an investigation of the spatio-temporal patterns of state expansion. 70 Koponen 1995, 241. Beispiel des Schutzgebietes Togo [Colonial Rule: On the Sociological Theory of State Building at the Example of the Protectorate Togo. Germany did not attempt to re-mold its colonial subjects in the German image in the way that the French and the British tried to mold their subjects in their image. The Journal of Economic History 72 (2):393–422. Iliffe, John. We use ‘sub-national expansion of the state’ in a similar sense, but with a more geographical connotation, namely for the process of creating state institutions in geographical areas where the state has previously not been present. 2006. Amsterdam: Elsevier. PRIMACY OF TERRITORIAL CONTROL IN ‘PRIMITIVE’ STATE BUILDING, What explains geographic patterns of state expansion? When using the distance to the nearest station as a dependent variable, we generate problems of strong spatial autocorrelation, since neighboring cells have very similar values on the dependent variable. For grid cells that already have a station, we assign the strategic value before the station was created – otherwise, grid-cell years with stations would receive a zero strategic value for all years past the initial year with a station, creating an artificial negative correlation between station presence and strategic value.78 We then standardize this variable. We estimate a linear probability two-stage least squares model, controlling for the same set of confounding variables as before. The process of the ‘primitive accumulation of power’3 constitutes an initial and basic phase of state building that focuses on establishing state presence and control; in this phase, state elites have limited ambitions beyond territorial domination, since they are often constrained by a disjuncture between their national capabilities and the size of the territory they aim to control.4 These conditions characterize a. First, due to its own weakness, the colonial state was under high internal pressure to maintain, order and control. This might indicate that some groups were able to parlay their resistance into a stable bargain with the German colonial administration, but only if they could rely on internal hierarchical structures that facilitated negotiations. Der koloniale Verwaltungsaufbau in Deutsch-Ost-Afrika vor und nach dem Weltkriege: deutsche und englische Verwaltung [Structure of the Colonial Administration in, Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 735. 18 Tilly 1990. Echoing this recommendation, the French military, during its mandate rule in Syria, stressed the need to establish a presence in difficult-to-reach areas ‘to demonstrate to the population that at any time we are capable of rapidly bringing a sizable force to the Mountain and by its presence at the heart of the country to warn against any attempt of uprising’.47 Similarly, Killingray emphasizes that in Nigeria, colonial ‘military headquarters stood in strategic centers at the heart of newly conquered territories’ to signal authority and deter any potential rebellion.48. It is thus not surprising that the colonial government invested heavily in producing accurate maps of its colonial territory. Even if our data are not accurate in the objective sense, as long as this information guided and shaped colonial administrators’ decisions, we are able to estimate our quantities of interest. A second corollary to the primary concern about territorial order and control is that early state builders tended to react to actual instances of violent opposition rather than theoretical assessments of structural preconditions. Station presence, a hot climate and the presence of road infrastructure are the only statistically significant predictors of cotton plantations. We use information from the Military Orientation Book for German East-Africa (Militärisches Orientierungsheft für Deutsch-Ostafrika), which was prepared by the German military and published in 1911. 1903. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 719, the East African territories into the empire and established full-scale colonial rule by assuming all administrative functions and appointing von Wissmann’s troops as a colonial force.62, In the early years of German imperial rule, colonial state building was characterized by substantial internal contradictions.63 The colonial regime’s military superiority allowed it to strengthen its grip over the entire territory despite encountering bitter resistance. Hence, we rely on a general indicator of soil suitability for agriculture from the Harmonized World Soil Database.86 We also added data on the yearly world market price of cotton and rubber.87 The extractive potential of each product is modeled via the soil quality measures, world market prices and their respective interaction terms. 90 Information on caravan routes stems from a map of the Abushiri Revolt in 1892, and information on roads. In History. Development for Exploitation: German Colonial Policies in Mainland Tanzania, 1884–1914. We add to this work by narrowing our analytical focus to a specific phase of state building: an early and transitional phase in which states face the challenge of establishing authority over newly claimed territories with very limited resources at their disposal. 39 General Act of the Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, Article 35. Tibebu, Teshale. Again, this difference in measurement has no substantive impact on our findings (see Appendix Section 9). All in all, German colonies comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda. In Appendix Section 4 we also present additional results for an alternative ordinal coding of. 2011. The ‘doctrine of effective occupation’ requires states to establish a ‘skeletal grid of regional administration’ that encompasses all of their territories.46 As Machiavelli recommended to the prince in reference to the stabilization of colonies, presence is an essential symbol of power and helps identify potential areas of resistance. 8 E.g. 57 Bückendorf 1997; Klein-Arendt 2005. German Imperialism Timeline created by yanissa082. We assigned the number of troops in the colonial forces stemming from the respective local ethnic groups. Fig. While political centralization has an independent and negative effect on the creation of stations and their respective status, we still find consistent evidence for our two main independent variables. Simulations were based on estimates from Model 1 in Table 1. Stations were responsible for securing trade along the caravan routes, taxing the local population, administering forced labor and ensuring jurisdiction.76 Consequently, the spatio- temporal advancement of state expansion can be traced through the establishment of German stations.77 Hence, our first indicator measures the presence of a German station. 4e Nature of German ImperialismTh to its altitude, Ngorongoro featured a mild climate, was free from tsetse, and remote enough from the next governmental outpost to … When controlling for the number of missionary stations in each grid cell, we still find positive and statistically significant effects for our two main variables of interest. In Der Maji-Maji- Krieg in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1905–1907 [The Maji-Maji War in German East-Africa 1905-1907], edited by Felicitas Becker and Jigal Beez, 28–58. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Higher population density is associated with a stronger German state presence, which is statistically significant at the 1 per cent level across all models. Bald, Detlef. 1994. We also measure the qualitative investment of state resources in each grid cell. Cameron, Donald 1937. We conduct an in-depth analysis of state-building efforts by the German colonial, administration in the territories of former German East Africa (which comprises today’s Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi) to test our arguments. Journal of Democracy 15 (2):17–31. 1999. 2008. Herbst has highlighted the role of transportation infrastructure and road density as an indicator of the colonial ability to project power.89 It may also be argued that state expansion was driven by the objective of securing the territory against surrounding colonial powers. We control for two features of local ethnic groups in our models: ethnic group size and integration into the German military. 1999. He reluctantly acquiesced to pleas for help to deal with revolts and armed hostilities by often powerful rulers whose lucrative slaving activities seemed at risk. (1) Station Presence (2) Station Presence (3) Station Presence (4) Station Type (5) Station Type (6) Station Type, Area − 6.273 − 6.230 − 6.161 − 2.870 − 3.049 − 3.606 (5.369) (5.570) (5.643) (2.307) (2.316) (2.380), Caravan Road Length 0.656 0.616 0.514 0.277 0.273 0.255 (0.573) (0.568) (0.564) (0.271) (0.267) (0.263), Road Length 1.505* 1.590* 1.760** 0.738* 0.765* 0.835** (0.679) (0.674) (0.677) (0.313) (0.312) (0.317), Disease Environment − 0.005 − 0.006 − 0.013 − 0.001 − 0.001 0.000 (0.041) (0.041) (0.039) (0.019) (0.019) (0.020), Number of Troops, 1889 − 0.474* − 0.466* − 0.392+ − 0.175+ − 0.177+ − 0.166+, (0.240) (0.233) (0.216) (0.094) (0.094) (0.096) Ethnic Population − 0.005 − 0.005 − 0.005+ − 0.003+ − 0.003+ − 0.003+, (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) Population Density 1.474*** 1.434** 1.391** 0.680** 0.684** 0.703**, (0.441) (0.440) (0.456) (0.212) (0.211) (0.216) Mean Elevation − 2.815 − 2.651 − 2.329 − 0.864 − 0.876 − 1.028, (2.229) (2.176) (2.022) (0.858) (0.861) (0.897) Annual Precipitation 1.276 1.215 1.006 0.849 0.837 0.719, (1.045) (1.054) (1.088) (0.522) (0.521) (0.535) Annual Mean Temp − 0.032 − 0.028 − 0.022 − 0.006 − 0.006 − 0.009, (0.041) (0.040) (0.035) (0.016) (0.016) (0.016) Border Distance 9.528** 9.223** 8.180** 3.539** 3.587** 3.619**, (3.183) (3.109) (3.085) (1.307) (1.306) (1.346) Coastal Distance 0.263 0.391 0.688 − 0.213 − 0.225 − 0.098, (1.690) (1.668) (1.640) (0.645) (0.651) (0.681) Soil Quality − 0.577 − 0.621 − 0.753 − 0.382 − 0.396 − 0.377, (0.603) (0.723) (0.572) (0.321) (0.380) (0.323) Cotton price, 1yr lag − 0.050 − 0.038 − 0.012 − 0.030 − 0.025 − 0.009, (0.057) (0.070) (0.057) (0.023) (0.031) (0.028) Soil Quality × Cotton price, 1yr lag 0.015 0.016 0.018* 0.008* 0.008 0.009*, (0.009) (0.012) (0.009) (0.004) (0.005) (0.004) Rubber Suitability − 2.074 − 3.025 − 3.888+ − 0.688 − 0.984 − 1.750*, (1.993) (2.078) (2.047) (0.797) (0.808) (0.811) Rubber price, 1yr lag − 0.006 − 0.037* − 0.062* − 0.001 − 0.013+ − 0.028*, (0.015) (0.016) (0.031) (0.006) (0.007) (0.013), Rubber Suitability × Rubber price, 1yr lag 0.000 0.010 0.019 − 0.004 − 0.001 0.006 (0.019) (0.020) (0.019) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007), Battle Index, 1yr lag 0.621*** 0.259*** (0.170) (0.062), Control Value, 1yr lag 2.292*** 0.499*** (0.590) (0.048), Battle Index, 2yr lag 0.563*** 0.240*** (0.143) (0.056), Control Value, 2yr lag 1.888*** 0.483*** (0.489) (0.047), Battle Index, 5yr lag 0.546* 0.237** (0.212) (0.089), Control Value, 5yr lag 1.030*** 0.415*** (0.152) (0.045), Constant 5.625 7.191 6.820 (13.266) (12.695) (11.601), Year FE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Observations 7074 6681 5502 7074 6681 5502 Log-Likelihood − 839.594 − 857.700 − 883.375 − 1447.458 − 1430.959 − 1371.555 AIC 1751.189 1785.400 1830.751 2972.916 2937.918 2813.110, Clustered standard errors in parentheses. Good, Bad, and Ugly Colonial Activities: Do They Matter for Economic Development. on early colonial state building following the ‘scramble for Africa’. 2bPredicted probability of a station in grid cell i as a function of Territorial Control Value, 1Boone 2003; Herbst 2000; Mann 1984; Scott 2009; Weber 1976.2Mann 1984; Soifer 2006; Soifer and Hau 2008.3Cohen, Brown, and Organski 1981.4Herbst 2000,’76.5New Imperialism refers to a period of enormous colonial expansion, in particular by European powers, Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers, Download paper from your email or personal account. 1940. Suffolk: James Currey. 2007. Young, Robert. The road measure might be partially endogenous to the presence of a station. Again, this does not affect our main findings. * Authors contributed equally. Gwassa, Gilbert Clement Kamana. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde (supporters of colonial acquisitions) and a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. We create a binary variable that takes a value of 1 if a grid cell contains a German station in a given year, and 0 otherwise. DOAG continuously expanded its territorial presence by establishing a number of small trading stations in coastal areas.58 The company increasingly intervened in pre-existing cultural, political and economic structures, predominantly by establishing authority over tariffs and taxes, jurisdiction and land rights.59 In 1888, in response to DOAG’s heavy interference in political and economic affairs along the coast, local wealthy merchants and landowners began to mobilize resistance against the German intruders in the so-called Abushiri Revolt.60 Bismarck initially hesitated to intervene on behalf of DOAG, but finally decided to charge Hermann von Wissmann with commanding a hastily recruited contingent of local soldiers to quell the resistance. The German Empire, a latecomer to the colonial game, only sought territorial possessions in the New Imperialism stage of colonialism.5 This period was characterized by European nations’ virtually insatiable hunger for territorial acquisitions overseas, as the result of a highly nationalistic environment demanding that nations solidify their international standing both internationally and domestically. Gebauer-Schwetschke druckerei und verlag m. b. h. Engerman, Stanley L., and Robinson 2001 Engerman! Increasing state capacity, his home country imperative of territorial control and order British... Three perspectives highlight essential elements of complex long-term, state-building processes around the World taken! One- and two-year lag models disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas Empire it... Http: //dataverse.harvard.edu/ dataverse/BJPolS in Southeast Tanzania possible through the establishment of in. 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Ethnic group size and integration into the German colonial rule Section 9 ):. At affordable rates classifying the persecution against the native elders same set of state-building cases we... On the Sociological Theory of state, Infrastructural Power, Prosperity, and 2001. All major battles fought by the presence of the paper movement was that colonial should! An overseas Empire before 1914 the globe period and can barely handle your assignment and relevant... Exogenous instruments for our clients research purposes and helping them to gain better understanding of the.... Largely affected by some amount of underreporting, misreporting and inaccuracy when Germany occupied countries! Agents prioritized territorial control value variables have the appropriate software installed, you can Download article data. 1890–1909 713, tried to carry out at the Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, article.... 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Explanatory variable, we include a lagged dependent variable we estimate a linear probability two-stage squares... Ghana, and social life of another country bachelor, masters, Ph.D. and! Reports from 1892 to 1914 on the location of the stations in German East Africa and can barely handle assignment...

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