New Delhi: Mahatma Gandhi was perhaps the “greatest Hindu patriot of our times”, says a new book, The Making of a True Patriot: Background of Gandhiji’s Hind Swaraj, which is scheduled to be released by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh chief Mohan Bhagwat on 1 January. Zed's organization is part of an interfaith coalition that's recently called on Anheuser-Busch InBev to rename its Brahma beer line -- which shares its name with a Hindu … [95][96][97] Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. [53] The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Paul Dundas (2002), The Jains, 2nd Edition, Routledge. [64] Distinguishing Indian traditions is a fairly recent practice, states Lipner, and is the result of "not only Western preconceptions about the nature of religion in general and of religion in India in particular, but also with the political awareness that has arisen in India" in its people and a result of Western influence during its colonial history. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu nationalists have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil rights, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion. [117] According to Chattopadhyaya, the Hindu identity and religious response to Islamic invasion and wars developed in different kingdoms, such as wars between Islamic Sultanates and the Vijayanagara kingdom (Karnataka), and Islamic raids on the kingdoms in Tamil Nadu. The waters of Tambraparni, which were once white with sandal paste, Last 10 years The word Hindu is an exonym. Hindus celebrating their major festivals, Colonial-era usage (18th to 20th century), Hindu identity amidst other Indian religions, According to Ram Bhagat, the term was used by the, See also "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records"; more links at the bottom of that page. The Republic of India is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of India, while it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language". Sylvia Vatuk (2013), Adjudicating Family Law in Muslim Courts (Editor: Elisa Giunchi), Routledge. An official release termed it a courtesy call. [160] The Hindu nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire. [88] In early colonial era Anglo-Hindu laws and British India court system, the term Hindu referred to people of all Indian religions as well as two non-Indian religions: Judaism and Zoroastrianism. As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". [120] Chattopadhyaya, and other scholars,[121] state that the military and political campaign during the medieval era wars in Deccan peninsula of India, and in the north India, were no longer a quest for sovereignty, they embodied a political and religious animosity against the "otherness of Islam", and this began the historical process of Hindu identity formation. Margaret Allen (1992), Ornament in Indian Architecture, University of Delaware Press. adjective. Why the Hindu Right, Not Usually a Champion of Free Speech, Is Supporting Charlie Hebdo. Hinduism in Indonesia, as of the 2010 census, is practised by about 1.7% of the total population, and by more than 83% of the population in Bali. Quotes []. Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. [101] Hindus also have shared texts such as the Vedas with embedded Upanishads, and common ritual grammar (Sanskara (rite of passage)) such as rituals during a wedding or when a baby is born or cremation rituals. Among the earliest terms to emerge were Seeks and their College (later spelled Sikhs by Charles Wilkins), Boudhism (later spelled Buddhism), and in the 9th volume of Asiatick Researches report on religions in India, the term Jainism received notice. [163][164][165] Jaffrelot states that the efforts of Christian missionaries and Islamic proselytizers, during the British colonial era, each of whom tried to gain new converts to their own religion, by stereotyping and stigmatising Hindus to an identity of being inferior and superstitious, contributed to Hindus re-asserting their spiritual heritage and counter cross examining Islam and Christianity, forming organisations such as the Hindu Sabhas (Hindu associations), and ultimately a Hindu-identity driven nationalism in the 1920s. [ˈhɪnduː , hɪnˈduː] noun. [159][161], Chris Bayly traces the roots of Hindu nationalism to the Hindu identity and political independence achieved by the Maratha confederacy, that overthrew the Islamic Mughal empire in large parts of India, allowing Hindus the freedom to pursue any of their diverse religious beliefs and restored Hindu holy places such as Varanasi. It was not dedicated to a god, but to the imperial cult of King Kanishka (127–151 CE).The ritual of idol worship which became popular at the end of the Vedic age may have given rise to the concept of temples as a place of worship. Furthermore, this system is positional, which means that the position of a symbol has bearing on the value of that symbol within the number. White supremacy and Hindu nationalism have common roots going back to the 19th-century idea of the ‘Aryan race’. There was one French, however, who had converted to Hinduism in her pursuit for the Aryan culture and called Hitler, the greatest European and regarded him as an avatar of Lord Vishnu. The mayhem was allegedly triggered by a Facebook post by Shankar Debnath, a Hindu from the village, supporting French cartoons on Oct. 31. 11, Issue 3, pages 283–319. To a Hindu the idea of a god being married merely emphasizes that the creative force is both male and female. [51], According to Pennington, the terms Hindu and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. [176], According to Pew Research, there are over 1.2 billion Hindus worldwide (15% of world's population), with over 94.3% of them concentrated in India. Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge. Two Hindu households consisting five houses were vandalized and torched in Comilla after a man reportedly showed support for France ... Shankar Debnath, were vandalized and was set on fire. Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism is part of Hinduism in 2005 and 2006. [51] Followers of other Indian religions so identified were later referred Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains and distinguished from Hindus, in an antagonistic two-dimensional manner, with Hindus and Hinduism stereotyped as irrational traditional and others as rational reform religions. This makes the Hindu calendar vastly more complex than the western calendar, which is built aroun… : Sanskrit sources and the Muslims (eighth to fourteenth century), Manohar Publications. Pakistani police arrested 14 people in overnight raids after a Hindu temple was set on fire and demolished by a mob led by supporters of a radical extremist party, officials said Thursday. The French presence was always minor compared with the British presence, and the French in India were generally not a significant portion of the population. Katharine Adeney and Lawrence Saez (2005), Coalition Politics and Hindu Nationalism, Routledge. [102][103] Some Hindus go on pilgrimage to shared sites they consider spiritually significant, practice one or more forms of bhakti or puja, celebrate mythology and epics, major festivals, love and respect for guru and family, and other cultural traditions. [49] One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu. [138][135] Further, it is a norm in evolving cultures that there is a gap between the "lived and historical realities" of a religious tradition and the emergence of related "textual authorities". 71, No. [73][74][75] The people of India were referred to as Hinduvān (Hindus) and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama. [122] The poetry of this period contrasts Hindu and Islamic identities, states Nicholson, and the literature vilifies the Muslims coupled with a "distinct sense of a Hindu religious identity". Westerners used to the Gregorian calendar quickly notice that the year is dated differently in the Hindu calendar. in. Ambassador of France to India Emmanuel Lenain called on Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami at the Secretariat in Chennai on Monday. [116], Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence. [80] The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme). In this short article, we explain and provide some examples of the most common French verb tenses you'll come across. Brahman: There is one supreme, impersonal reality called Brahman. NASA has declared the Mars digger dead after failing to burrow deep into the red planet to take its temperature.Scientists in Germany spent two years trying to … The distribution of Indian religions in British India (1909). Their sacred texts are also the Vedas and the Upanishads. [162] A few scholars view Hindu mobilisation and consequent nationalism to have emerged in the 19th century as a response to British colonialism by Indian nationalists and neo-Hinduism gurus. [57][58][59] A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and Bengali. Ann Kenney et al (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press. Read our series of blogs to find out more. [75], Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term 'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". A bunch of Islamist radicals attacked a fellow Muslim for posting photos online of a Christmas party he had attended. [59][f], Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu identity history, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as Kabir, Anantadas, Eknath, Vidyapati, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks (Muslims), had formed during these centuries. The rulers, called It is now held that Hinduism was taken to Indonesia not by traders, as was formerly thought, but by Brahmans from India who taught Shaivism and the message of personal immortality. These texts used it to contrast Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas (foreigners) or Mlecchas (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma". [78] Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that 'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially: 'Indian', 'indigenous, local', virtually 'native'. The mayhem was allegedly triggered by a Facebook post by Shankar Debnath, a Hindu from the village, supporting French cartoons on Oct. 31. Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life. [123], Overlaps in Jain-Hindu identities have included Jains worshipping Hindu deities, intermarriages between Jains and Hindus, and medieval era Jain temples featuring Hindu religious icons and sculpture. I am confident that we are going to have some new French investment in Chennai either in production or R&D. Coverage of the temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the temple. The incident occurred in the northeastern city of Belfort, France, where a 20-year-old man was assaulted by Islamists for participating in a Christmas party, a report published on RT.com said. [175], Hindu nationalism in India, states Katharine Adeney, is a controversial political subject, with no consensus about what it means or implies in terms of the form of government and religious rights of the minorities. The attacks sparked panic … [80] In Islamic literature, 'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word 'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word 'hindu' to mean 'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion". Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press. Haris Zargar One dismissed as a baseless conspiracy theory born out of a Hindu right-wing fantasy and nationalistic chauvinism, the so-called love jihad has now been weaponized by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s dispensation to target interfaith marriages in the country. Many Indians also cited the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), which fast-tracks Indian citizenship applications for persecuted people from India's neighbours. If you’re catching up with a French-speaking friend, old or new, you’ll probably want to ask them how they are, and vice versa. The remains of the earliest temple structure were discovered in Surkh Kotal, a place in Afghanistan, by a French archeologist in 1951. [187][188], "Hindoo" and "Hindu" redirect here. Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1998), Representing the other? However I decided to specialise in French and obtained my Ph.D. in French at the Lille 3 University in France. The 14th-century Sanskrit text, Madhuravijayam, a memoir written by Gangadevi, the wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of war using religious terms,[118]. Brahman is the source of all things but is not a personal creator. 281, pages 224–230. The Yadava king of Devagiri named Ramacandra, for example states Pollock, is described in a 13th-century record as, "How is this Rama to be described.. who freed Varanasi from the mleccha (barbarian, Turk Muslim) horde, and built there a golden temple of Sarngadhara". [75] The term 'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. [129] Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris, were frequent. Hinduism is the religion of the majority of people in India and Nepal. Civil Appeal no Great business environment system, composed of the Peacock Throne: temple... Decline to 0.9 % Judgment, Indiana University Press Burma during ancient times % based the... 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