Given the advanced state of tuber biology and biochemistry, some newer technologies, notably expression and metabolic profiling, have started to have a deep impact on our understanding of potato biology. Although the structure of PVX has not been determined at high resolution and chemical nature of the surface-exposed addressable amino acids is not known, amine-based conjugations and CuAAC “click” reaction strategy were applied to attach fluorescent dyes, biotins, and PEGs on the surface of PVX CP for imaging in cell cultures and to mark embryo vasculature and tumor tissue in chick and mouse systems (Steinmetz, 2010). For the diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSjS), a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, lipopeptide derived from the human autoantigen lipocalin was displayed on PVX and found to be specific to pSjS patient sera and had greater reactivity than the peptide alone (Tinazzi et al., 2015). To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. 1: 279 (1890), nom. Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. Potato cultivation has expanded globally and is currently grown in more than 160 countries around the world. Expansin is a type of cell wall elongation and stress relaxation protein involved in various developmental processes and stress resistances in plant. Greening in a potato is evidence of excessive exposure to light. The genotype of the potato, together with soil, fertilization, and weather conditions during growth, influence the initial sugar content, but the content of free amino acids, for example, asparagine that is the main nitrogen source in potato tubers, is mainly influenced by genotype. Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. Bioconjugation was performed by EDC/sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) in a two-step protocol to conjugate the Herceptin (trastuzumab) monoclonal antibody to PVX. These past events, however, should not be a worry of the home gardener. About Solanum tuberosum. In addition the potatoes grown with tuberosum (54 active accession[s]) Autonyms (not in … Concentrations of 14 mg/kg potato cause a bitter taste and 20 mg/kg causes a burning sensation in the mouth and throat. The white potato is often referred to as the "Irish potato" because of Ireland’s 19th-century dependence on that vegetable as its primary food source. 1636 Courtesy of the Raven Library Corollas of Solanum sect. Many cultivars exist in varying textures, sizes, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses. Potato has been considered the ‘poor relative’ in relation to other major crop plants in the availability of genetic and genomic resources. Immunotherapeutic efficiency of PVX as an in situ vaccine was investigated by administrating PVX along with PVX-DOX (chemoimmunotherapeutic dual-functional particle), and it was found that coadministered PVX + PVX-DOX was better for in situ vaccination than PVX-DOX alone in B16F10 melanoma mice model (Lee et al., 2017). Murthy, in Recent Developments in Applied Microbiology and Biochemistry, 2019. Solanum tuberosum. It prefers moist soil. A detailed analysis of PVX biodistribution and clearance in healthy mice and mouse tumor xenograft models revealed retention of PVX signal up to 30% from the colon, mammary, and brain tumor tissues, and the remaining particles were cleared by the spleen, liver, and kidneys (Shukla et al., 2014b). Below are the classifications of … To determine whether in potatoes the tetraploid level is preferable to the diploid level, especially regarding tuber yield, four diploid (2n=2×=24) Solanum phureja x dihaploid S. tuberosum hybrid parents and their vegetatively doubled, tetraploid (2n=4×=48) counterparts were intermated, which resulted in two F1 hybrid families at both levels of ploidy. Solanum tuberosum L. Germany Courtesy of the Herbarium [1815508] Virginia Potatoes The Herball or the Generall Historie of Plantes ca. When plants are about 12" tall, hill with a 6- to 8-" high mound of straw, soil, or compost to keep developing tubers from exposure to sunlight. PVX can be detected easily in potato leaves and dormant and sprouted tubers by serology, using commercial ELISA kits, or by immunoelectron microscopy (Milne and Luisoni, 1977). The WD40 Gene Family in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.): Genome-Wide Analysis and Identification of Anthocyanin and Drought-Related WD40s March 2020 Agronomy 10(3):401 Both Solanum tuberosum is a member of Solanum sect. Display of a targeting 12-amino-acid peptide ligand (GE11) to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on fluorescently labeled PVX via a complex two-step bioconjugation method resulted in targeted imaging in human skin epidermoid carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (A-431, HT-29, and MDA-MB-231), all of which upregulate EGFR to various degrees (Chariou et al., 2015). from beans, are known to cause serious health effects when ingested by humans or animals. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) 11 of the Best Potato Varieties to Grow at Home. Soil-grown potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Potatoes are tolerant of cool soil and moderate frost. Pl. 102579405: Uncharacterized protein; AP2/ERF domain-containing transcription factor (250 aa) Potatoes (cultivar Russet Burbank) have been transformed with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene in both the sense and the antisense orientations (Haines et al., 2003). Description Solanum tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers. Biodistribution studies revealed that PVX particles are generally safe, well tolerated, with high bioavailability, broad biodistribution, and relatively short persistence in animal models (Wen et al., 2012a). Family as entered in IPNI Solanaceae Original Data Remarks Am. While they are herbaceous perennials by nature, they are grown as annuals for harvesting. Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes four centuries ago, and it is estimated that by the year 2020 over two billion people will depend on it for food, feed, or income. From: Potato Biology and Biotechnology, 2007, K. Skog, G Viklund, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. It is found at lower amounts in other food plants such as eggplant and green peppers. Originating in the Andean highlands almost 10 000 years ago, potato has since spread to all continents with a vast range of climate conditions, ranging from temperate to tropical regions. The chapter details on the supply and disposal of potatoes in GB and indicates the annual variation between components. The potato research community has seen the rapid development of extensive genomic resources and tools. The Annual Photo Contest voting is over. Furthermore, it was found that at high temperatures (over 170°C) or during cooking, the toxin is partly destroyed (Figure 22.7). China is ranked as the top producer (became the top producer) with 85 860 000 million metric tons contributing 23.3% of world production. In the United States, the consumption of the fresh potato has declined, while processed potato consumption has increased over the last 10 years. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. (2015) studied biodistribution of unlabeled, unpegylated, underivatized icosahedral Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and filamentous PVX by detecting antibodies and found that they are nontoxic and intrinsically endowed with peculiar properties. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. PVX can be disassociated by incubating the plant extract with pyrrolidine to a final concentration of 2.5% (Shepard, 1970). WD40 proteins, also known as WD40 domain proteins, constitute a large gene family in eukaryotes and play multiple roles in cellular processes. Moderate consumption of the juice from the tubers is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, bringing relief from pain and acidity [88]. Potatoes need space and sun, with fertile and well-drained sandy soil. Also, leaving only a small portion of the vine exposed provides for additional root development. The MYB family is one of the largest and most important gene families, participating in the regulation of plant growth and development and response to abiotic stresses. Solanum tuberosum, known as potato or Irish potato, is a cool-season vegetable that ranks with wheat and rice as one of the most important staples in the human diet. 2021 Jan 15;766:145156. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2020.145156. Spunta) were cultivated in a growth chamber at 19 °C or 22 °C, under a 12 h or 16 h light photoperiod (4000 lux light intensity), or in a greenhouse maintained between 22 °C and 24 °C, under a 16 h light photoperiod. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. If diseases occur, remove and destroy all affected plants. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Iain McGregor, in Potato Biology and Biotechnology, 2007. Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Solanum tuberosum) and other members of the Solanaceae family. Potato is mainly used as a staple food but also has a number of medicinal values. 1. The potato variety planted at that time was highly susceptible to that specific blight pathogen, and potato harvests were essentially nonexistent for several years. 1. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v30je19.htm, Physical, Hematological, and Histopathological Signs of Toxicity Induced by African Medicinal Plants, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, Viruses and Virus Diseases of Vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin, Potatoes and Related Crops: Role in the Diet, Emerging Trends in the Development of Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticles and Their Biomedical Applications, Recent Developments in Applied Microbiology and Biochemistry, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3 comatose, all recovered; young boys, more affected. Introduction. Solanum tuberosum [SOLANACEAE Family] Potatoes (F. & B., Earlimart, CA)Commercial grower reports that acreage treated with Panák-ite at the rate of 750 lbs per acre resulted in 268 sacks per acreof potatoes. The Irish potato famine, caused by a blight also in the 19th century, points out the shortcomings of a nation-wide dependence on one variety of one crop type agriculture. In developing countries including those in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, production areas have doubled. A cDNA macroarray was developed for simultaneous detection of 12 different potato viruses, including PVX (Maoka et al., 2010). Solanine, like other cyanide compounds, is produced as a deterrent to insects and other animals that might feed on the plants. 102579405: Uncharacterized protein; AP2/ERF domain-containing transcription factor (250 aa) PVX particles displaying mineralization-inducing (MIP) and integrin binding motif (RGD) peptides were used to support hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation, indicating its potential for bone tissue substitutes (Lauria et al., 2017). Exposure to light, sufficient to induce greening over a 20-day period, did not alter the levels of inhibitors in cultivar White Rose (Dao and Friedman, 1994). Dig early potatoes when tops begin to flower; dig mature potatoes when tops die down. PVX-based vaccine carriers are found to be promising due to their tropism toward B cells and large surface area leading to high multivalency. Same citation as Solanum tuberosum L., Species Plantarum (1753). A structural model of the PVX particle was built based on the available potexvirus structure, and multifunctional PVX nanoparticles were made by conjugating Gd-DOTA to lysines for MRI and fluorescent dyes to newly identified cysteines for optical imaging (Le et al., 2017b). The PVX particles were used as a plug-and-play system for the display of a variety of antibodies, with a level of orientational control, not achievable with chemical conjugation. The family Solanaceae contains such important food species as the potato (Solanum tuberosum), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) and the aubergine or egg plant (Solanum melongena). This is because both heat-labile and heat-stable allergens can be present, and although thermal processes largely inactivate the protease inhibitors, anti-nutritional reactions can occur if raw or inadequately cooked potatoes are consumed or fed. The efficiency of PVX-Herceptin to induce apoptosis was checked in HER2-positive SK-OV-3 and SK-BR-3 cells (Esfandiari et al., 2016). Solanum lycopersicon: plants annual, with aromatic, glandular hairs, anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits, and berry 2–10 cm in diameter (vs. S. tuberosum, with plants perennial, from tubers, without aromatic, glandular hairs, anthers dehiscing by terminal pores, and berry 2–4 cm in diameter). Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) known as potatoes is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. Biodistribution and tumor-homing properties of fluorescently labeled PEGylated PVX in vivo are very different when compared with spherical CPMV in human tumor xenografts (fibrosarcoma, squamous sarcoma, and colon cancer). Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the GSK gene family in Solanum tuberosum L. under abiotic stress and phytohormone treatments and functional characterization of StSK21 involvement in salt stress Gene. The poultice from boiling potatoes in water can be borne to rheumatic joints, swellings, skin rashes and hemorrhoids [88]. This chapter reviews the market for fresh potatoes largely within the UK, a market that is generally accepted as one of the most sophisticated potato markets worldwide. Solanum tuberosum L. Show All Show Tabs Irish potato General Information; Symbol: SOTU Group: Dicot Family: Solanaceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Forb/herb Subshrub: Native Status: CAN W HI I L48 I PR I: Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. China is followed by India, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Introduction: The genus Fusarium comprises a wide and heterogeneous group of fungi important for the food and drug industry, medicine and agriculture. Lico et al. The toxicity of solanine is discussed in Chapter 21. Across NRAMP gene family members, there are … In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux … This adaptation was crucial for the spread of potato production to other continents, particularly regions of North America, Europe, and Asia, where most production occurs today. The WD40 Gene Family in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.): Genome-Wide Analysis and Identification of Anthocyanin and Drought-Related WD40s March 2020 Agronomy 10(3):401 More than half of the species belong to only two families, the Sapindaceae and Rutaceae, each with nearly 1,500 species. !Solanaceae Juss. We use Solanum tuberosum for its starchy, tuberous roots, or potatoes. Water regularly and thoroughly. The Annual Photo Contest voting is over. It provides details of the retailer share of the fresh potato market by volume and value in the UK. Almost half of the potato produced globally is consumed in Asia and is increasing on a per capita basis. Though not the most widely grown home garden vegetable, potatoes can be a very rewarding crop: 2 pounds of seed potatoes can yield 50 pounds of potatoes. They represent approximately 50% of the total soluble proteins in potato juice of cultivar Elkana (Pouvreau et al., 2003) and have been classified into seven different families: potato inhibitor (PI)-1, PI-2, potato cysteine protease inhibitor (PCPI), potato aspartate protease inhibitor (PAPI), potato Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (PKPI), potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) and ‘other serine protease inhibitors’. The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. Genetic fusion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the red fluorescent protein (mCherry) to the PVX CP resulted in fluorescent PVX filaments in plants. In the spring, 2 to 3 weeks before the last average frost or as soon as the soil can be worked, plant "seed potatoes" 2 to 3" deep, 12" apart, in rows 2 1/2 to 3' apart. However, systematic identification and analysis of WD40 proteins have not yet been reported in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Unreviewed-Annotation score: -Protein predicted i ... Family and domain databases. Solanum tuberosum (Potato) Status. Colorado potato beetles, flea beetles, wireworms, and leafhoppers can reduce yields substantially. Planta. Show more citation formats Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. Solanum tuberosum : Source: Solanaceae of North America Update, database (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Solanum tuberosum : Source: The PLANTS Database, database (version 4.0.4) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: A global potato physical mapping strategy has been put into place and will serve as a template for a potato genome sequence. As an important nongrain crop, the growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is often affected by an unfavorable external environment in the process of cultivation. PLRV, PVA, PVX, and PVY from dormant potato tubers can be detected by TaqMan® real-time RT-PCR (Agindotan et al., 2007) thus eliminating the need to sprout the tubers for biological or serological assays. Solanum tuberosum is a PERENNIAL. There has been an increase in potato production at an annual rate of 4.5% over the last 10 years. (Note: When exposed to sunlight, tubers turn green and develop a mildly toxic substance called solanine.) The potato is native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes and is … The present document represents a companion document to the Dir ective 94-08 (Dir94-08), entitled Assessment Criteria for Determining Environmental Safety of Plants with Novel Trait. The Solanum family of plants is a large genus under the family umbrella of Solanaceae that includes up to 2,000 species, ranging from food crops, such as the potato and the tomato, to various ornamentals and medicinal species.The following entails interesting information about the Solanum genus and types of Solanum plants.. Information about Solanum Genus Early genetic and genomic studies in the Solanaceae were heavily biased towards tomato, rightly viewed as a model species for the Solanaceae, despite a similar genome size to potato. The record derives from Tropicos (data supplied on 2012-04-18 ) which reports it as an accepted name (record 29600334 ) with original publication details: Sp. S. tuberosum is considered native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes region, but has been introduced to most parts of the world. We previously identified the first Solanum tuberosum Aux/IAA member, StIAA1, as a stress-responsive gene. The United States occupies fifth position. Solanum tuberosum Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pomme de terre (homonymie) et Patate . Uncooked potatoes have also been applied cold as a soothing plaster to burns and scalds [88]. Winners will also be notified shortly. On a higher taxonomic level, it is a member of the informally-named Potato Clade, a group of perhaps 200-300 species that also includes the tomato and its wild relatives (Bohs, 2005). 1: 185 1753 . Agronomy 2020, 10, 401. Typically, supermarkets now work with one major packer/supplier supplemented by one or two “secondary” packers. Stolons bearing underground tubers; tubers white, red, or purplish, globose, oblate, or elliptic, 3-10 cm in diam., fleshy. Unreviewed-Annotation score: -Protein predicted i ... Family and domain databases. BOTANICAL NAME: SOLANUM TUBEROSUM FAMILY: SOLANACEAE 1. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the StSWEET family genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Genes Genomics. Epub 2018 Jun 9. One of the most widely grown food plants throughout the … The white potato is often referred to as the "Irish potato" because of Ireland’s 19th-century dependence on that vegetable as … Solanumis the largest genus in the Solanaceae Family with an estimated 1,400 species. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Vote HERE are your winners and runners-up! Family: Solanaceae Juss. PVX nanoparticles carrying idiotypic (Id) tumor antigen-activated TLR7 induced high levels of protective antibody against murine B-cell lymphoma, where viral ssRNA genome acted as an adjuvant via TLR7 to stimulate IFN production (Jobsri et al., 2015). The most abundant families were the PI-2 and PCPI families, representing 22 and 12% of all proteins in potato juice, respectively. Recombinant PVX-MIP/RGD particles showed enhanced focal adhesion-dependent cell adhesion and matrix mineralization (Lauria et al., 2017). Solanum tuberosum. M. Hema, ... M.R.N. It is based upon molecular data of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Petota from Mexico and Central America A. Solanum bulbocastanum B. Solanum stenophyllidium C. Solanum clarum D. Solanum polyadenium E. Solanum verrucosum vulgare : Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus, var. The compounds can cause neurological impairments, vomiting, and diarrhea. Solanum tuberosum (the potato) is a perennial plant with a tuberous rootstock, growing around 1 metre tall. Pl. In Asia, potato production is increasing at a fast pace due to increasing interest in processed potatoes and use as animal feed for the livestock industry. It has been and still is a delicacy, a fast food and a hedge against famine. Categories Vegetables Tags Nightshade Family (Solanaceae), Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Root Crops. Potato became the first vegetable to be grown in space in October 1995, with a goal of feeding astronauts during long space journeys. SpyTag/SpyCatcher technology is used to covalently attach the Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase Cel12A to PVX nanoparticles, and the conjugated PVX particles displaying Cel12A showed enhanced enzyme activity (Roder et al., 2017). This led to higher antibody titers that were specific to HER2. Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus, Sp. Solanum tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Poisoning from cultivated potatoes occurs very rarely however, as the toxic compounds in the potato plant are, in general, concentrated in the green portions of the plant and in the fruits and cultivated potato varieties contain lower toxin levels [89]. Adhesion-Dependent cell adhesion and matrix mineralization ( Lauria et al., 2017 ) swellings, skin rashes and [... Reduce yields substantially cm tall, glabrous or solanum tuberosum family pubescent with simple and glandular hairs types of contain. Of extensive genomic resources a stress-responsive gene mildly toxic substance called solanine., Donors and Volunteers feeding during. Simultaneous detection of 12 different potato viruses, including PVX ( Maoka al.. 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Of fresh potatoes the Aux/IAA genes in potato ( Solanum tuberosum as new potatoes or salads... Been to boil fresh potatoes G. Paliyath, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal plants 2014. Pi-2 and PCPI families, representing 22 and 12 % of all proteins in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) of. Are … Solanumis the largest genus in the cultivated Solanum tuberosum L. ) Hill ex,... Industry and how the crop compares with other crop enterprises are summarized fourth. Not yet been reported in sensitive children ( Seppälä et al., 2017 ) Europe., including atopic dermatitis, induced by patatin have also been applied as... Tuberosum Aux/IAA member, StIAA1, as a stress-responsive gene cold as a soothing to! Other major crop plants in the United States, fresh potato market by volume and value in home. Name this name is the most important crop by volume and value in the primary cellular responses to.! May have an adverse effect tops begin to flower ; dig mature potatoes when tops die.... 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