The 1964 Alaska earthquake is reported to have caused approximately 128-131 deaths. [23] Seiches were detected in wells in countries around the world, including England, Namibia, and Australia. The hamlets of Girdwood and Portage, located 30 and 40 mi (48 and 64 km) southeast of central Anchorage on the Turnagain Arm, were destroyed by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Seafloor displacement caused by slip on the megathrust fault generated a tsunami that propagated across the Pacific Ocean, which The most impactful earthquake in Alaska since the 1964 M9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake occurred on Friday, November 30, 2018 at 8:29AM. That event marked a turning point for earthquake science. Across south-central Alaska , ground fissures, collapsing structures, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 131 deaths. In addition to the earthquake, the event triggered a major tsunami that caused casualties and damage from the Kodiak Islands to northern California. Soil liquefaction, fissures, landslides, and other ground failures caused major structural damage in several communities and much damage to property. [30] Chance provided breaking news of the catastrophic events that continued to develop following the magnitude 9.2 earthquake, and she served as the voice of the public safety office, coordinating response efforts, connecting available resources to needs around the community, disseminating information about shelters and prepared food rations, passing messages of well-being between loved ones, and helping to reunite families. About 20 miles (32 km) of the Seward Highway sank below the high-water mark of Turnagain Arm; the highway and its bridges were raised and rebuilt in 1964–66. Land overlooking the Ship Creek valley near the Alaska Railroad yards also slid, destroying many acres of buildings and city blocks in downtown Anchorage. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard deployed ships to isolated coastal communities to assist with immediate needs. https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0051/. Southeast of Anchorage, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet (2.4 m), requiring reconstruction and fill to raise the Seward Highway above the new high tide mark. Damage to Fourth Ave. in Anchorage, caused by the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. 1964 Alaska Earthquake, Great Alaska Earthquake As mentioned before, on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. ADT (03:36 3/28 UTC) a great earthquake of magnitude 9.2 occurred in Prince William Sound region of Alaska. There were premonitions. The northwestward movement of the Pacific Plate relative to the North American Plate caused the earthquake. Anchorage, Alaska. The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. [30] She was effectively designated as the public safety officer by the city's police chief. On March 27, 1964, a megathrust earthquake struck Alaska, about 15 miles below Prince William Sound, halfway between Anchorage and Valdez. It caused about 139 deaths. The neighborhood lost 75 houses in the landslide, and the destroyed area has since been turned into Earthquake Park. Run-up of 67 m (220 ft) at Shoup Bay, Alaska. Bob thought the house was shaking because Alice had done something wrong with the washing machine. That remains the second most powerful earthquake ever recorded globally. At magnitude 9.2, it was the … Results . What were the underlying causes? [26] The team produced a report on May 8, 1964, just a little more than a month after the earthquake. The 1964 Alaskan earthquake, also known as the Great Alaskan earthquake and Good Friday earthquake, occurred at 5:36 PM AKST on Good Friday, March 27. The 1964 M9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake, which is still the second largest earthquake ever recorded worldwide, began under Prince William Sound. The Government Hill School (left) suffered severe damage and landslides after the 1964 earthquake. Of the 119 deaths attributable to the effects of the ocean, about one-third were due to the open-ocean tsunami: 4 at Newport Beach, Oregon; 12 at Crescent City, California; and about 21 in Alaska. At the order of the U.S. Defense Department, the Alaska National Guard founded the Alaska Division of Emergency Services to respond to any future disasters.[28]. The Great Alaska Earthquake that struck the Anchorage area on Good Friday, March 27, 1964 at 5:36 PM registered 8.6 on the Richter Scale, although scientists now favor a different magnitude scale for very large quakes that shows this quake as 9.2. It rocked the state and shook the ground for between four and five minutes. Post-quake tsunamis severely affected Whittier, Seward, Kodiak, and other Alaskan communities, as well as people and property in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. AKST (3:36 a.m. UTC), a fault between the Pacific and North American plates ruptured near College Fjord in Prince William Sound. Committee on the Alaska Earthquake. [5] Large rockslides were also caused, resulting in great property damage. Menlo Park, CA 94025, USGS Evening Public Lecture SeriesMenlo Park Campus Map, Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data. At magnitude 9.2, it was the … In the first day alone, eleven major aftershocks were recorded with a magnitude greater than 6.0. That remains the second most powerful earthquake ever recorded globally. The epicenter of the earthquake was 12.4 mi (20 km) north of Prince William Sound, 78 miles (125 km) east of Anchorage and 40 miles (64 km) west of Valdez. "PROWESS Honors Historic Earthquake Survivor". [3][9], As a result of the earthquake, 131 people are believed to have died:[3] Nine died as a result of the earthquake itself and another 122 died from the subsequent tsunami all over the world. Other Professional I Papers in ithe series describe field investigations and The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that hit Anchorage, Alaska, on Friday caused no fatalities or widespread building damage, according to officials. The U.S. Army rapidly re-established communications with the lower 48 states, deployed troops to assist the citizens of Anchorage, and dispatched a convoy to Valdez. [17] The damage in British Columbia was estimated at CA$10 million ($81 million in 2018 Canadian dollars or $76 million in 2019 US dollars). The Alaska earthquake of 1964 was very powerful--a 9.2 out of 10 on the Richter magnitude scale. The tsunami then reached Tofino, on the exposed west coast of Vancouver Island, and traveled up a fjord to hit Port Alberni twice, washing away 55 homes and damaging 375 others. There was extensive damage to coastal towns and infrastructure throughout the region, particularly in Anchorage, Seward, Whittier, and Valdez. Alaska’s continental shelf and North American plate rose over 9 meters during the earthquake. …40 minutes after the 1964 Alaska earthquake, produced by seismic surface waves passing through the area.… soil liquefaction For example, during the Alaska earthquake of 1964 , the liquefaction of a sandy layer of soft clay beneath Turnagain Heights, a suburb of Anchorage, caused a landslide in the mass of ground above that destroyed approximately 75 homes and disrupted utilities.… HMC-0051. Alaska earthquake of 1964, earthquake that occurred in south-central Alaska on March 27, 1964, with a moment magnitude of 9.2. [15] It is likely that the toll would have been much higher had the quake not occurred after 5 PM on Good Friday. [12][13], The quake was a reported XI on the modified Mercalli Intensity scale "indicating major structural damage, and ground fissures and failures". The earthquake and ensuing tsunamis caused about $2.3 billion of damage (equivalent to $311 million in 1964). Portage, Alaska after the 1964 earthquake. Across south-central Alaska (mainly in Anchorage), ground fissures, collapsing structures, and tsunamis were caused by the earthquake. The U.S. Geological Survey reports that: The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh … Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned. National Research Council (U.S.). Clip of Seward, Anchorage, and Kodiak in the aftermath of the 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Alaska earthquake of 1964, earthquake that occurred in south-central Alaska on March 27, 1964, with a moment magnitude of 9.2. Downtown Anchorage, the collapse of Fourth Avenue near C Street, due to a landslide caused by the earthquake. [29] Broadcast journalist, Genie Chance, assisted in recovery and relief efforts, staying on the KENI air waves over Anchorage for more than 24 continuous hours as the voice of calm from her temporary post within the Anchorage Public Safety Building. But the house kept rocking. Here, that 11-foot (3.4 meter) drop — or subsidence — took a line of parked cars with it. Ocean floor shifts created large tsunamis (up to 220 feet (67 m) in height), which resulted in many of the deaths and much of the proper… The earthquake happened in the so-called Alaska-Aleutian Trench, where a magnitude 9.2 quake in 1964 was centered. The magnitude was originally reported as a magnitude 7.0 but was revised to M7.1 on March 8, 2019. “The 1964 earthquake gave birth to modern megathrust earthquake detection,” Haussler said. The biggest earthquake that has hit Alaska was a 9.2 magnitude giant in March 1964, an interface thrust faulting earthquake that ruptured over several hundred kilometers between Anchorage and … USGS. It rocked the state and shook the ground for between four and five minutes. Downtown Anchorage, the collapse of Fourth Avenue near C Street, due to a landslide caused by the earthquake. Saucier, Heather (April 2014). This kind of subduction causes the largest and deepest earthquakes known. THE ALASKA EARTHQUAKE SERIES The U.S. Geological Survey is publishing the re- sults of its investigation~ of the Alaska earthquake I 1 of March 27, 1964, in a series of sin Professional Papers. There was a tectonic tsunami produced in addition to about 20 smaller and local tsunamis. Overview • There were 1,440 deaths from all causes in 1964. o 115 (7.8%) of total deaths in 1964 were due to the earthquake. [2] Across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing structures, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 131 deaths.[3]. The Government Hill school suffered from the Government Hill landslide, leaving it in two jagged, broken pieces. On Good Friday, March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. local time, the earth began to shake in the subduction zone in the Prince William Sound in Alaska. Seafloor displacement caused by slip on the megathrust fault generated a tsunami that propagated across the Pacific Ocean, which The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake occurred on Good Friday, March 27th. Major. The waterfront at Seward a few months after the earthquake, looking north. The San Francisco Chronicle reports on the 1964 tsunami that caused severe damage in Crescent City, Calif. The damage was caused entirely by the shifting of ground along the fracture, USGS concluded. Alaska experiences more earthquakes each year than any other state in the United States, and is located in one of the most seismically active regions in the world. This sequence is an excerpt of AAF-9895 from the Walter Covich collection held by the Alaska Film Archives, a unit of the Alaska and Polar Regions Collections & Archives Department in the Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. The crust of southern Alaska is compressed and warped due to plate movement after the plates locked. The 1964 Alaska earthquake is reported to have caused approximately 128-131 deaths. What caused the earthquake. On Oct. 27, 1962, two months after moving back to Alaska, Alice felt the “sharpest” earthquake so far. [18][19][20], Twelve people were killed by the tsunami in or near Crescent City, California, while four children were killed on the Oregon coast at Beverly Beach State Park. Prior to this earthquake, liquefaction was a known curious phenomenon, but its The epicenter of the earthquake was 12.4 mi (20 km) north of Prince William Sound, 78 miles (125 km) east of Anchorage and 40 miles (64 km) west of Valdez. ('1) Slide-induced waves, seiching, and ground fracturing caused by the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Kenai Lake, Alaska, by David S. McCulloch. Building 3 Auditorium, second floor The 1964 earthquake caused a huge landslide that essentially split the school in two. [24], There were hundreds of aftershocks in the first weeks following the main shock. Great 1964 Alaska Earthquake Good Friday alaska earthquake. That's mostly thanks to strict building codes passed after a 1964 Alaska earthquake. San Francisco Earthquake And The 1964 Alaska Earthquake 1130 Words 5 Pages Over more than 50 decades there has been multiple earthquakes that have been caused by the activity that takes place beneath and above the surface of the earth. The focus occurred at a depth of approximately 15.5 mi (25 km). "Getting Ready to Rumble", Richard Conniff. Abstract. Science Features: The 1964 Alaska Earthquake & Tsunami. It released at least twice as much energy as the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and was felt on land over an area of almost 502,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km). Clip of Seward, Anchorage, and Kodiak in the aftermath of the 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Studies of ground motion have led to a peak ground acceleration estimate of 0.14–0.18 g.[6], The Alaska earthquake was a subduction zone (megathrust) earthquake, caused by an oceanic plate sinking under a continental plate. The map shows the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Earthquake (red star), caused when the Pacific Plate lurched northward underneath the North American Plate. [29] The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center was formed as a direct response to the disaster. UAA/APU Consortium Library Archives and Special Collections. On March 27th, 1964, the second largest instrumentally recorded earthquake worldwide rocked southern Alaska for 4 to 5 minutes. Most other areas of the city were only moderately damaged. Liquefaction in and around Anchorage tore the land apart. The 1964 Alaska earthquake also known as the Great Alaska Earthquake, the Portage Earthquake and the On March 27th, 1964, the second largest instrumentally recorded earthquake worldwide rocked southern Alaska for 4 to 5 minutes. There are about 20,000 earthquakes in Alaska every year (Alaska Earthquake Center). The crust of southern Alaska is compressed and warped due to plate movement after the plates locked. [28] On the advice of military and civilian leaders, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared all of Alaska a major disaster area the day after the quake. It rocked the state with strong ground shaking for 4.5 minutes. According to Wikipedia, as far away as 200 miles in Kodiak, the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused some areas to be permanently raised by thirty feet, while areas near Portage dropped about eight feet. The tsunami was about 220 feet tall. In this Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology resource we look at the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, which occurred on Good Friday, March 27th. A photographer looks over wreckage as smoke rises in the background from burning oil storage tanks in Valdez, Alaska, on March 29, 1964, two days after the earthquake struck. USGS, 1964 Alaska quake files Anchorage house pulled apart as the ground on which it had been anchored opened up, creating a fissure (or graben). These smaller tsunamis were produced by submarine and subaerial landslides and were responsible for the majority of the tsunami damage. Sixteen people died from resulting tsunamis in Oregon and California. The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. Landslides, and the waves they generated, destroyed all the ports and most of the small boat harbors and were responsible for most of the casualties. Portage, Alaska after the 1964 earthquake. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 11:47. It was the largest U.S. … [25] The team, called the Engineering and Geological Evaluation Group, was headed by Dr. Ruth A. M. Schmidt, a geology professor at the University of Alaska Anchorage. [22] Effects of the earthquake were even noted as far east as Freeport, Texas, where tide gauges recorded waves similar to seismic surface waves. According to Wikipedia, as far away as 200 miles in Kodiak, the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused some areas to be permanently raised by thirty feet, while areas near Portage dropped about eight feet. The earthquake happened in the so-called Alaska-Aleutian Trench, where a magnitude 9.2 quake in 1964 was centered. 12 p.m. —Lecture preview for USGS employees and news media representatives (B) Geomorphic effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964. in the Martin-Bering Rivers area, Alaska, by Samuel J. Tuthill At this boundary, the Pacific Plate slides beneath the North American Plate, causing the majority of Alaska’s earthquakes, including the 1964 earthquake. Professional Paper 543 describes the re- 1 gional effects of the earthquake. Tsunami waves were noted in over 20 countries, including Peru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Japan, Mexico, and in the continent of Antarctica. [28] A military airlift immediately began shipping relief supplies to Alaska, eventually delivering 2,570,000 pounds (1,170,000 kg) of food and other supplies. Vertical displacement of up to 38 feet (11.5 m) occurred, affecting an area of 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2) within Alaska. The 1964 Alaska tsunami was the second largest ever recorded, again following only the one caused by the 1960 Chile earthquake (4 meters at Sitka). Sixteen people died from resulting tsunamis in Oregon and California. On Good Friday, March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. local time, the earth began to shake in the subduction zone in the Prince William Sound in Alaska. The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. The community of Girdwood was also confined to the southern side of the Seward Highway when water rushed into Turnagain Arm and flooded or destroyed any buildings left standing to the north of the highway. of 1964 earthquake related deaths, applied to the 2018 Alaska population in the geographical areas that were affected by the earthquake. In March 1964, a tectonic tsunami struck the city during the 1964 Alaska earthquake with 30 ft waves that killed 15 people and caused $11 million in damage. According to the USGS, the Great Alaska Earthquake caused over $300 million in damage ($2.3 billion in 2013 dollars) and took the lives of 131 people, 119 of those due to the tsunamis. Regional uplift and subsidence occurred mainly in two nearly parallel elongate zones, together about 600 miles long and as much as 250 miles wide, that lie along the … THE ALASKA EARTHQUAKE, MARCH 27,1964: EFFECTS ON COMMUNITIES EFFECTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE OF MARCH 27,1964, IN THE HOMER AREA, ALASKA The March 27,1964, earthquake shook the Homer area for about 3 minutes. Sozen, Mete A. and N. Norby Nielsen, 1973: Canadian inflation numbers based on Statistics Canada tables 18-10-0005-01 (formerly CANSIM 326-0021), Friedel, Megan K. (2010). The greatest damages were sustained, not from the earthquake itself, but from soil failure, tsunamis, landslides, and avalanches. [25][27], The United States military, which has a large active presence in Alaska, also stepped in to assist within moments of the end of the quake. Two hundred miles (320 km) southwest, some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet (9 m). The team of scientists came into conflict with local developers and downtown business owners who wanted to immediately rebuild; the scientists wanted to identify future dangers to ensure that rebuilt infrastructure would be safe. The local tsunamis were worse and they were generated by the landslides underwater. The 1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw = 9.2) was a landmark event in geotechnical earthquake engineering. What caused the earthquake. The 1964 Alaskan earthquake, also known as the Great Alaskan earthquake and Good Friday earthquake, happened at 5:36 PM AKST on Good Friday, March 27, 1964. The U.S. Geological Survey reports that: The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh … A photographer looks over wreckage as smoke rises in the background from burning oil storage tanks in Valdez, Alaska, on March 29, 1964, two days after the earthquake struck. 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